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Deploying and Troubleshooting Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers

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    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

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  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2010
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8 X 9-1/8
  • Pages: 600
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-814-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-814-1

This is the only complete, all-in-one guide to deploying, running, and troubleshooting wireless networks with Cisco® Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs) and Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP)/Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP). Authored by two of the most experienced Cisco wireless support professionals, the book presents start-to-finish coverage of implementing WLCs in existing wired and wireless network environments, troubleshooting design-related issues, and using LWAPP/CAPWAP solutions to achieve your specific business and technical goals.


One step at a time, you’ll walk through designing, configuring, maintaining, and scaling wireless networks using Cisco Unified Wireless technologies. The authors show how to use LWAPP/CAPWAP to control multiple Wi-Fi wireless access points at once, streamlining network administration and monitoring and maximizing scalability.  Drawing on their extensive problem-resolution experience, the authors also provide expert guidelines for troubleshooting, including an end-to-end problem-solving model available in no other book.


Although not specifically designed to help you pass the CCIE® Wireless written and lab exams, this book does provide you with real-world configuration and troubleshooting examples. Understanding the basic configuration practices, how the products are designed to function, the feature sets, and what to look for while troubleshooting these features will be invaluable to anyone wanting to pass the CCIE Wireless exams.

  • Efficiently install, configure, and troubleshoot Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers
  • Move autonomous wireless network solutions to LWAPP/CAPWAP
  • Integrate LWAPP/CAPWAP solutions into existing wired networks
  • Understand the next-generation WLC  architecture
  • Use Hybrid REAP and Home AP solutions to centrally configure and control branch/remote access points without deploying controllers in every location
  • Use Mobility Groups to provide system-wide mobility easily and cost-effectively
  • Use Cisco WLC troubleshooting tools, and resolve client-related problems
  • Maximize quality in wireless voice applications
  • Build efficient wireless mesh networks
  • Use RRM to manage RF in real-time, optimizing efficiency and performance
  • Reference the comprehensive WLC and AP debugging guide

Part of the CCIE Professional Development Series, this is the first book to offer authoritative training for the new CCIE Wireless Exam. It will also serve as excellent preparation for Cisco’s new CCNP® Wireless exam.

Online Sample Chapter

Deploying a Fast and Stable Wireless Mesh Network

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Table of Contents

Introduction xviii

Chapter 1 Troubleshooting Strategy and Implementation 1

    Developing a Troubleshooting Strategy 1

        Production Versus Nonproduction Outages 1

        Step 1: Gathering Data About the Problem 2

        Step 2: Identifying the Problem 2

        Step 3: Isolating the Problem 3

        Step 4: Analyzing the Data Collected About the Problem 7

    Summary 9

Chapter 2 Wireless LAN Controllers and Access Points 11

    Wireless LAN Controller Platforms 11

        Current Production WLCs 12

        Previous WLCMs 15

        Functionality Differences Between WLCs 17

        WLC Hardware and Software Requirements 19

    Lightweight AP Models 20

        Cisco Aironet APs 20

        Airespace APs 25

        AP 1000 Series Functionality Differences 26

        AP 1000 Series Limitations 26

    Lightweight Compared to Traditional Autonomous APs 28

        Scalability 28

        RRM 29

        Self-Healing Mechanism 30

        WLC Features 30

        Central Management 32

    Summary 35

Chapter 3 Introduction to LWAPP 37

    Defining LWAPP 37

        Quick Protocol Overview 38

    LWAPP Advantages 41

        Management 42

        Scalability 42

        Security 43

        Mobility 43

    LWAPP Mechanics 44

        Discovery Process 45

        Join Process 55

        Image Process 56

        Config State 56

        Run State 57

    Dissecting the Discovery Response 58

        Manually Dissecting the Discovery Response 59

    Summary 61

Chapter 4 The CAPWAP Protocol 63

    Overview of CAPWAP 64

        Differences from LWAPP 65

    CAPWAP Session Establishment/AP Joining Process 67

        Discovery Process 70

        DTLS Session Establishment 71

        Join/Config/Run 81

        Troubleshooting CAPWAP Session Establishment/AP Discovery and Join 90

    CAPWAP Communication: Control and Data Encryption 98

    CAPWAP Communication: Sequence Numbers and Retransmissions 100

    CAPWAP Fragmentation and Path MTU Discovery 101

        CAPWAP-Control Packets Fragmentation 101

        CAPWAP-Data Packets Fragmentation 101

        CAPWAP—MTU DISCOVERY and TCP-MSS Adjustment 102

    802.11 Bindings and Payloads 103

        CAPWAP-Data Binding and Payloads 103

        CAPWAP-Control Binding and Payloads 104

        LWAPP and CAPWAP Vendor-Specific Payloads 105

    Summary 105

Chapter 5 Network Design Considerations 107

    Controller Placement 107

        Access Layer Deployments 108

        Distribution Layer Deployments 109

        Service Block Deployments 109

        WAN Considerations 110

    AP Placement 110

        Dense AP Deployment Considerations 112

        802.11n 114

        Location Design Considerations 116

    Summary 119

Chapter 6 Understanding the Troubleshooting Tools 121

    Troubleshooting on the WLC 121

        Debugging 121

        Advanced Debugging 126

    mping and eping 131

    Message Log 132

    Trap Log 133

    Statistics 135

        Controller Statistics 135

        AP Statistics 135

    RADIUS Server Statistics 137

        Port Statistics 137

        Mobility Statistics 138

        Packet Captures 139

    WLC Config Analyzer 140

    Software Bug Toolkit 141

    Summary 142

Chapter 7 Deploying and Configuring the Wireless LAN Controller 143

    Connecting the WLC to the Switch 144

        Multiple AP-Manager Support 145

    LAG 148

        Layer 2 and Layer 3 LWAPP Transport Modes of Operation 151

        LWAPP Layer 3 Transport Mode 153

        Interfaces on the WLC 156

    DHCP Proxy Vs. DHCP Bridging 159

        DHCP Proxy Mode 160

        DHCP Bridging Mode 163

    Overview and Configuration 163

        Configure the Switch for the WLC 169

    Troubleshooting WLC Issues 171

    Summary 176

Chapter 8 Access Point Registration 177

    AP Discovery and Join Process 177

    Troubleshooting Network Connectivity and AP Registration 181

        Verifying VLAN Configuration 181

        Verifying IP Addressing Information 182

    Understanding the AP Discovery and AP Join Process 183

    Troubleshooting the AP Discovery and AP Join Process 191

        WLC Config Analyzer 197

        AP Debugs 198

        Debug Template 198

    Summary 199

Chapter 9 Mobility 201

    Client Roaming/Mobility Events 202

        Intra-Controller Roaming 202

        Inter-Controller Roaming 202

        Inter-Subnet Roaming/Layer 3 Mobility Events 202

        Auto-Anchor Mobility 206

    AP Groups 207

        Troubleshooting AP Groups 208

    Mobility Groups 210

    Mobility Messaging 212

        Mobility Message Types 212

        Mobility Role of the Controller to the Client 213

        Mobility Handoff Types 214

        Mobility Packet Format 221

        Error Recovery 223

        Mobility Messaging Enhancements in 5.0 224

    Configuring Mobility Groups 224

        Configuring Auto-Anchoring 226

        Determining Controllers to Add to a Mobility Group 228

        Secure Mobility 228

    Troubleshooting Mobility 229

        PMKID Caching 238

        AP Mobility 241

        Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Controllers 241

        AP Load Balancing 243

        AP Failover 244

        Troubleshooting AP Mobility 245

    Summary 247

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Client-Related Issues 249

    General Client Information 249

    Client Association Packet Flow 250

    Client Utilities and Logging 255

    AP Debugs and Show Commands 258

    Wireless and Wired Sniffer Traces 261

    Debug Client 262

    Debug Client Variations 263

    Client Connection 265

    Controller Processes 265

        PEM 266

        APF 268

        802.1x Authentication (Dot1x) 270

    Debug Client Analysis 270

    Troubleshooting Examples 285

        Wrong Client Cipher Configuration 285

        Wrong Preshared Key 287

        Incorrect User Credentials with EAP 289

    Summary 291

Chapter 11 Wireless Voice 293

    Prerequisites for Voice Deployments 293

    Phone Features 295

        Supported Protocols, Specifications, and Certifications 295

        Security 296

        Coexistence 297

    QoS 297

        Latency, Jitter, and Loss 298

        Correct Packet Marking 298

        Upstream and Downstream QoS 302

        Wi-Fi Multimedia 303

        TSPEC 304

    Configuration 305

        Controller 305

        Switch Ports 311

        WLAN Profile on the Phone 312

    Troubleshooting 792x Voice Quality Issues 313

        Basic Troubleshooting/Connectivity 313

        Choppy/Lost Audio 316

        One-Way Voice 319

        Network Busy 321

        Poor Audio When Roaming 323

        Multicast Applications Fail 324

        Enabling Trace Logs on the 792x 329

        Troubleshooting and Monitoring Tools 337

        WCS 338

        Packet Capture Software 340

        Spectrum Analysis Tools 341

    SpectraLink and Vocera Deployments 342

        SpectraLink 342

        Vocera Deployments 344

    Summary 347

Chapter 12 Radio Resource Management 349

    How RRM Works 349

        RF Grouping 351

        Dynamic Channel Assignment 357

        TPC 358

        Coverage Hole Detection 359

        Enhancements to RRM 360

    Configuring RRM 362

        Dynamic Channel Assignment 363

        Transmit Power Control (TPC) 365

        Coverage 367

        Profiles and Monitor Intervals 368

        Overriding Global RRM 369

    Troubleshooting RRM 371

        SNMP Traps 371

        show Commands 373

        Debugs 378

    Summary 389

Chapter 13 H-REAP 391

    H-REAP Versus REAP 392

        Split MAC Versus Local MAC Architecture 392

    H-REAP Modes of Operation 394

        Central Versus Local Switching 395

        H-REAP States of Operation 397

        H-REAP Wireless Security Support 398

    Configuring H-REAP 398

        Controller Discovery 398

        Configuring the WLAN 402

        Configuring the AP 404

        Configuring the Local Switch 405

        H-REAP Guidelines and Limitations 408

    H-REAP Enhancements 410

        Backup RADIUS Server 410

        H-REAP Groups 411

        Local Authentication 412

    Troubleshooting H-REAP 412

        show Commands 414

        debug Commands 422

    Summary 430

Chapter 14 Guest Networking 431

    Web Authentication 431

        Web Authentication Policies 432

        Web Authentication Types 435

        Web Authentication Process 436

        Troubleshooting Basic Web Authentication 440

        RADIUS and LDAP Authentication with Web Auth 447

        Guest User Accounts 451

        Custom Web Auth Splash Pages 452

        Global Override 453

        Browser Security Warning 454

    Centralized Traffic Flow with Guest Access 458

        Auto-Anchor/Guest Tunneling 458

        Configuring Auto-Anchor 460

        Troubleshooting Guest Tunneling 461

        Wired Guest Access 467

        Troubleshooting Wired Guest Access 470

    Summary 471

Chapter 15 Mesh 473

    Mesh Code Releases 474

    Mesh Deployments 474

    How Mesh Works 476

        Mesh Bootup and Join Process 477

        Configuring Mesh 480

    Ethernet Bridging 483

    Troubleshooting Mesh 488

        AP Join Problems 488

        RF Issues 491

        show Commands 492

        Remote Telnet and AP Debugs 495

        Ethernet Bridging Troubleshooting 497

    Summary 502

Appendix A Debugging Commands 503

    WLC Debugs 503

        Existing Debugs in Software Version 5.0 and Earlier 503

        Debugs Introduced in Software Version 5.1 518

        Debugs Introduced in Software Version 6.0 520

        Debug Packet Logging 523

    AP Debugs 526

Appendix B LWAPP and CAPWAP Payloads 535

    LWAPP and CAPWAP Message Payloads 544

TOC, 9781587058141, 10/19/09

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