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An Overview of the syslog Protocol

Chapter Description

This chapter presents an overview of the syslog protocol and shows you how to deploy an end-to-end syslog system. You'll learn about the syslog architecture as well as the issues in deploying syslog servers in Linux and Windows OSs with a focus on their relevance in a Cisco environment.

Deploying Syslog Servers

Consider a typical campus network of an organization consisting of routers, firewalls, VPN concentrators, and switches to interconnect the application servers to the users' workstations. Figure 4-1 shows a scaled-down version of the campus network of one such organization, ABC Investments.

04fig01.gif

Figure 4-1 Campus Network of ABC Investments

To enable a centralized location to collect all the messages and alerts generated by various Cisco devices, the Netadmin has installed a syslog server. This server should be configured to accept, filter, and store syslog messages generated by the Cisco devices. Figure 4-2 illustrates LAN devices sending syslog messages to a central syslog server (with IP address 192.168.0.30). The following sections cover the step-by-step process of deploying the syslog server based on the choice of operating system.

04fig02.gif

Figure 4-2 Network Devices Sending Syslog Messages

Deploying the Default Syslog Daemon

To collect syslog messages generated by Cisco devices, many Netadmins might prefer to use the default syslog daemon that is included with the Linux operating system. Although it is well integrated with the operating system, the internal syslog server is not enabled for use as a network-based syslog server. To use the syslog daemon as a network-based syslog server, you must configure it through the /etc/syslog.conf file. Additionally, you must enable the syslog daemon to receive syslog messages from the network.

Configuring the Syslog Daemon

The /etc/syslog.conf file controls the configuration of the syslog daemon. This file contains the rules for sorting syslog messages. The rules specify the criteria by which to sort syslog messages on the basis of facility and severity levels, and to send them to destination log files. The default contents of the /etc/syslog.conf file are used to log the OS messages and should not be altered. To log messages from Cisco devices, simply append the new rules to the /etc/syslog.conf file. The syntax for specifying a rule is as follows:

  facility.severity<Tab>destination-file-path

To log messages from Cisco devices, the possible values for facility are local0 through local7 and those for severity are debug, info, notice, warning, err, crit, alert, emerg, and none. The keyword none indicates no severity for the given facility. Although abbreviated, the keywords correspond to the severity levels listed in Table 4-2.

In addition, recall from Table 4-2 that debug is the highest level of severity. Specifying debug in the /etc/syslog.conf file results in all the messages (from severity debug to emergency) being logged. The use of crit results in logging all messages with a severity of critical, alert, and emergency, thereby excluding the higher levels (error, warning, notice, informational, and debug). To override this default behavior, you can use the special characters described in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3. Special Characters in /etc/syslog.conf File [*]

Option

Description

,

Specifies multiple facilities with the same severity in one statement. The syntax is facility1 , facility2 . severity. Example: local1,local5.debug

;

Separates multiple pairs of facility.severity in the same line. Useful in conjunction with the ! option.

*

Specifies all facilities or all severities.

none

Specifies no severity for the given facility.

=

Specifies only using the indicated severity level. The syntax is facility.=severity. For example, local7.=debug only logs level7 messages at the debug level and ignores the rest, such as info, notice, warning, and so on. Useful in overriding the default behavior of the syslog daemon to include lower severity messages.

!

Ignores the specified severity level, including the lower levels. The syntax is facility.!severity. Useful in conjunction with the ; option. For example, local7.*;local7.!err logs all local7 messages but ignores messages with severity levels of error, critical, alert, and emergency.

destination-file-path

Specifies the location of the log file for storing the sorted messages. Instead of using the local file, you can also specify remote hosts using the @ option.

@

Specifies the host name or IP address of the remote syslog server. The syntax is facility . severity <Tab>@ hostname. If you use the host name, make sure that the host name is added in the /etc/hosts file.

You can create customized rules for sorting and storing various syslog messages based on the options listed in Table 4-3. For example, the following entry sends all the local7 messages to the file /var/log/router.log:

  local7.debug   /var/log/router.log

By using the debug severity level, all the messages (from severity debug to emergency) are included. You can add multiple rules to the /etc/syslog.conf file. Depending on the configuration, a message can match multiple rules and hence can be sent to multiple log files.

Example 4-1 contains several sample rules to be added to the /etc/syslog.conf file.

Example 4-1. Sample Entries for the /etc/syslog.conf File


   # all message from all facilities will be sent to /var/log/allmessages.log file     
*.debug                                    /var/log/allmessages.log
#
# Send all local4 messages to the /var/log/pix.log file                             

   # By default Cisco PIX firewall uses local4 facility                                
local4.debug                               /var/log/pix.log
#
# Send messages with facility local5 and severity level notice through emergency,   

   # to the /var/log/notice.log file                                                   
local5.notice                              /var/log/notice.log
#
# Only send messages with facility local4 and severity level of info                
   
local4.=info                               /var/log/onlyinfo.log
#
# Send all messages with facility local4 to the /var/log/errorandbelow.log file, but

   # exclude messages with severity error, critical, alert and emergency               
   
local4.*;local4.!err                       /var/log/errorandbelow.log
#
# Send all messages with facility local6 to the /var/log/allexcepterror.log file,   

    and                                                                                

   # only exclude messages with severity level err                                     
   
local6.*;local6.!=err                      /var/log/allexcepterror.log

By default, the syslog daemon only accepts local syslog messages. To enable the daemon to accept remote syslog messages, you must run the syslogd process in conjunction with the -r option. In Debian systems, the syslogd process is run through the /etc/init.d/sysklogd file. Using a text editor such as vi, you can edit the contents of the /etc/init.d/sysklogd file, as shown in Example 4-2.

Example 4-2. Partial Contents of the /etc/init.d/sysklogd File

#! /bin/sh
# /etc/init.d/sysklogd: start the system log daemon.
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin
pidfile=/var/run/syslogd.pid
binpath=/sbin/syslogd
test -x $binpath || exit 0
# Options for start/restart the daemons
#   For remote UDP logging use SYSLOGD="-r"
#
#SYSLOGD=""

      SYSLOGD="-r"                                        
   
# ---OUTPUT SUPPRESSED---

Running the Syslog Daemon

After editing the configuration files, you must restart the syslog daemon. On Debian Linux machines, you can use the init script, as follows:

  root@linuxbox:~# /etc/init.d/sysklogd restart
  Restarting system log daemon: syslogd.

The syslog daemon is now ready for use as a network syslog server. To verify the operation of the syslog daemon, use the ps command, in conjunction with grep, as follows:

  root@linuxbox:~# ps -ef | grep syslog
  root      5750      1  0 19:45 ?       00:00:00 /sbin/syslogd -r

To verify that the syslog daemon is listening for remote syslog messages on the default UDP port of 514, use the netstat command, as follows:

  root@linuxbox:~# netstat -na | grep 514
  udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:514             0.0.0.0:*

The line entry beginning with udp indicates that the system is listening at UDP port 514.

If you make changes in the /etc/syslog.conf file, you can instruct the syslog daemon to reload the file, without restarting the entire syslog daemon, using the kill command, as follows:

  root@linuxbox:~# kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid`

You can also use the kill -1 `cat /var/run/syslog.pid` command to get the same results.

To view the syslog messages, you can use the Linux system commands such as cat, tail, and head. For example, to view the last five syslog messages in the /var/log/pix.log file, use the tail -n 5 /var/log/pix.log command, as shown in Example 4-3.

Example 4-3. Viewing Syslog Messages Using the tail Command

root@linuxbox:~# tail -n 5 /var/log/pix.log
Apr 16 16:03:01 192.168.0.20 Apr 16 2005 15:37:27: %PIX-7-710002: TCP access
 permitted
from 192.168.0.150/20184 to inside:192.168.0.20/telnet
Apr 16 16:03:03 192.168.0.20 Apr 16 2005 15:37:29: %PIX-6-605005: Login permitted
 from
192.168.0.150/20184 to inside:192.168.0.20/telnet for user ""
Apr 16 16:03:07 192.168.0.20 Apr 16 2005 15:37:33: %PIX-7-111009: User 'enable_15'
executed cmd: show logging
Apr 16 16:04:37 192.168.0.20 Apr 16 2005 15:39:03: %PIX-7-111009: User 'enable_15'
  executed cmd: show running-config | inc logg
Apr 16 16:04:43 192.168.0.20 Apr 16 2005 15:39:09: %PIX-6-302010: 0 in use, 0 most
 used
root@linuxbox:~#

To view the messages in real time, use the tail command with -f option. In this case, the command would be tail -f /var/log/pix.log.

Deploying a Linux-Based Syslog-ng Server

As discussed earlier, Linux has a preinstalled syslog server, called Syslogd, that is an integral part of the operating system. However, the Syslogd daemon is older and suffers from the following limitations:

  • Facility— The facilities labels (local0 to local7) are too general and are used by many programs. Such generic labels do not reflect the real facility that is generating the messages. For example, while the facility code 0 clearly indicates kernel messages, the facility code 20 (local4) does not indicate a particular facility and can be potentially used by any Cisco device.
  • Filtering— Because all external programs are crowded together in the eight available local use facilities, many of the messages would end up using the same facility code. In such cases, selecting or filtering the messages from different devices becomes difficult. This makes it difficult to find the necessary information in the large number of log messages.

Several open source and commercial projects have tried to develop alternatives to the original syslog daemon. Some of them are Syslog-ng, SDSC Syslog, and Secure Syslog. Of these three, Syslog-ng, by Balazs Scheidler, is the next generation of syslog and offers the following advantages:

  • Filtering— Syslog-ng can filter messages based on the contents of messages in addition to the priority/facility pair. This enables the Netadmin to log messages that are generated by each Cisco device to its own log file.
  • Ports— Syslog-ng can use both Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and UDP. This feature is useful for logging messages from devices, such as Cisco PIX Firewalls, that provide options to use syslog over TCP. Using syslog over TCP provides reliability because TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.
  • Long host name format— The relay function offered by Syslog-ng allows syslog messages to traverse multiple Syslog-ng servers. In such cases, the long host name format, which records every intermediate Syslog-ng server, makes it easy to find the originating host and chain of forwarding hosts, even if a log message traverses several computers.
  • Active development and support— Syslog-ng's development is ongoing, and it enjoys communitywide popularity and support.

Because Syslog-ng offers more options and flexibility to the Netadmin, the following sections discuss the details of deploying a Syslog-ng server.

Installing the Syslog-ng Daemon

The steps involved in installing a Syslog-ng daemon on a Linux server are as follows:

  1. Log in to the Linux machine using suitable login credentials.
  2. Open a web browser and download the Syslog-ng source file from http://www.balabit.com. The source file is in a compressed tar file (for example, syslog-ng-1.6.5.tar.gz). Additionally, download the source files for libol, which is the support library for Syslog-ng. (An example is libol-0.3.14.tar.gz.)
  3. Unpack the libol distribution by using the tar xvfz libol-x.x.xx.tar.gz command, where x.x.xx indicates the version number. This creates a directory named libol-x.xx, where the source for libol is unpacked. For the example shown in Step 2, the directory name is libol-0.3.14.
  4. Enter the libol-x.x.xx directory using the cd libol-x.x.xx command.
  5. Enter the following three commands to compile the source code:
      
             ./configure
      
             make
      
             make install
    
          
  6. After installing the libol package, change the working directory back to the one that contains the Syslog-ng source files. Unpack the distribution by using the tar xvfz syslog-ng-x.xx.tar.gz command, where x.xx stands for the version number. This creates a directory named syslog-ng-x.xx, where the source files for Syslog-ng are unpacked. For the example shown in Step 2, the directory name is syslog-ng-1.6.5.
  7. Enter the syslog-ng-x.xx directory using the cd syslogng-x.xx command.
  8. Enter the following three commands to compile the source code:
      
             ./configure
      
             make
      
             make install
    
          

The Syslog-ng daemon is now ready for configuration. Example 4-4 shows the commands that are used in the installation process.

Example 4-4. Syslog-ng Installation

[root@linuxbox]# tar zxvf libol-0.3.14.tar.gz
[root@linuxbox]# cd libol-0.3.14/
[root@linuxbox libol-0.3.14]# ./configure
[root@linuxbox libol-0.3.14]# make
[root@linuxbox libol-0.3.14]# make install
[root@linuxbox libol-0.3.14]# cd ..
[root@linuxbox]# tar xvfz syslog-ng-1.6.5.tar.gz
[root@linuxbox  root]# cd syslog-ng-1.6.5
[root@linuxbox syslog-ng-1.6.5]# ./configure
[root@linuxbox syslog-ng-1.6.5]# make
[root@linuxbox syslog-ng-1.6.5]# make install

Configuring the Syslog-ng Daemon

The Syslog-ng daemon is configured through the /etc/syslog-ng file. The following five components are used to configure the syslog-ng.conf file:

  • options
  • source
  • destination
  • filter
  • log

Options

Syslog-ng.conf uses the options parameter to define global options for the Syslog-ng daemon. The command syntax is as follows:

  
   options { option1(value); option2(value); ... };

Table 4-4 provides a partial list of options.

Table 4-4. Partial List of Global Options in Syslog-ng

Option Name

Accepted Values

Description

sync()

Number

The number of lines buffered before being written to the file.

create_dirs()

yes or no

Enables or disables directory creation; helpful when using macros in the file destination drivers.

chain_hostnames()

yes or no

Enables or disables the chained host name format.

long_hostnames()

yes or no

Alias for chain_hostnames.

keep_hostname()

yes or no

Replaces the host name in the message with its DNS name.

If keep_hostname is yes and chain_hostnames is yes, the sender's name is appended to the DNS host name; otherwise the name is replaced.

use_dns()

yes or no

Enables or disables DNS usage. Syslog-ng blocks on DNS queries, so enabling DNS can lead to a denial of service (DoS) attack. To prevent DoS attacks, protect your Syslog-ng network endpoint with firewall rules, and make sure that all hosts that can get to Syslog-ng are resolvable.

use_fqdn()

yes or no

Adds a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) instead of a short host name.

Example 4-5 shows a sample snippet for the options components of the /etc/syslog-ng.conf file. This code prepares the Syslog-ng daemon to be used as a central syslog server for Cisco devices.

Example 4-5. Syslog-ng.conf—Options Components

options {
        chain_hostnames(yes);
        keep_hostname(yes);
        use_fqdn(yes);
use_dns(no)
        sync(0);
};

Source

The source statement defines one or more source categories used by the Syslog-ng daemon to collect messages. The /etc/syslog-ng.conf file refers to these sources as source-drivers. The command syntax for declaring all the sources is as follows:

  
   source 
   identifier { source-driver(params); source-driver(params); ... };

The identifier is a text string that uniquely identifies the source. Table 4-5 provides a partial list of source-drivers.

Table 4-5. Partial List of Source-Drivers in Syslog-ng

Source-Driver Name

Description

internal

Indicates messages that are generated internally in Syslog-ng

unix-stream

Opens the specified UNIX socket in SOCK_STREAM mode and listens for messages

unix-dgram

Opens the specified UNIX socket in SOCK_DGRAM mode and listens for messages

udp

Listens on the specified UDP port for messages

tcp

Listens on the specified TCP port for messages

Note the last two entries in Table 4-5. The UDP and TCP source-drivers enable the Syslogng daemon to act as a central syslog server. These source-drivers instruct the daemon to accept messages through the network.

Example 4-6 shows a sample snippet for the source components of the syslog-ng.conf file. The code (with identifier s_cisconetwork) prepares the Syslog-ng daemon to get syslogs sent by Cisco devices through the network at the default UDP port of 514.

Example 4-6. Syslog-ng.conf—Source Components

# source s_cisconetwork will listen on default UDP514
source s_cisconetwork {
     udp();
};

destination

The destination statement is used by the daemon to direct the syslog messages after filtering. Similar to sources, destinations use one or more destination-drivers to define message handling.

The command syntax for declaring the all the sources is as follows:

  
   destination 
   identifier { destination-driver(params); destination-driver(params);

  
   ... };

The identifier is a text string that uniquely identifies the destination list. Table 4-6 provides a partial list of destination-drivers.

Table 4-6. Partial List of Destination-Drivers in Syslog-ng

Destination-Driver Name

Description

file

Writes messages to the given file; this is the most commonly used option.

udp

Sends messages to the specified host and UDP port; this enables the syslog server to act as a relay server.

tcp

Sends messages to the specified host and TCP port; this enables the syslog server to act as a relay server.

program

Launches the specified program in the background and sends messages to its standard input; useful for incorporating syslog-ng with external scripts.

The first entry in Table 4-6, the file driver, is one of the most important destination-drivers in Syslog-ng. It allows you to include macros to automatically create new files based on the syslog message content. Note that this functionality requires the use of the create_dirs(yes) option in the destination-driver statement. The macros are included by prefixing the macro name with a dollar sign ($) (such as $HOSTS and $LEVEL).

For example, the following statement uses the $HOST macro in the file destination-driver:

  destination hosts { file("/var/log/host/$HOST" create_dirs(yes)); };

This creates a new log file for each of the hosts that sends a network message to this Syslogng daemon. The syslog messages sent by the host Router-Dallas are stored in the log file/var/log/host/router-dallas. If the router-dallas file does not exist, it is automatically created. Table 4-7 provides a complete list of macros that are available for the file destination-driver. As shown in this example, these macros provide highly flexible methods of handling syslog messages. A Netadmin can control the logging of syslog based on the host name, facility, severity, date, and timestamp of the syslog messages generated by Cisco devices.

Table 4-7. Available Macros in the File Destination-Driver

Name

Description

FACILITY

The name of the facility that the message is tagged as coming from.

PRIORITY or LEVEL

The priority or the severity level of the message.

TAG

The priority and facility encoded as a 2-digit hexadecimal number.

DATE

Date of the transaction.

FULLDATE

Long form of the date of the transaction.

ISODATE

Date in ISO format.

YEAR

The year the message was sent. Time expansion macros can either use the time specified in the log message (for example, the time the log message is sent) or the time the message was received by the log server. This is controlled by the use_time_recvd() option.

MONTH

The month the message was sent.

DAY

The day of the month the message was sent.

WEEKDAY

The three-letter name of the day of the week the message was sent (for example, Thu).

HOUR

The hour of the day the message was sent.

MIN

The minute the message was sent.

SEC

The second the message was sent.

FULLHOST

The full host name of the system that sent the log.

HOST

The name of the source host where the message originated. If the message traverses several hosts, and chain_hostnames() is set to yes, the name of the first host is used.

PROGRAM

The name of the program that the message was sent by.

MSG or MESSAGE

Message contents.

Along with using the macros listed in Table 4-7, the file destination-driver also allows the use of local options that override the global options listed in the beginning of the syslogng.conf file. Table 4-8 shows a partial list of these options.

Table 4-8. Partial List of Options for File Destination-Driver

Name

Type

Description

owner()

String

Sets the owner of the created filename to the one specified. The default is root.

group()

String

Sets the group of the created filename to the one specified. The default is root.

perm()

Number

Indicates the permission mask of the file if it is created by Syslog-ng. The default is 0600.

dir_perm()

Number

Indicates the permission mask of directories created by Syslog-ng. Log directories are only created if a file, after macro expansion, refers to a nonexisting directory, and dir creation is enabled using create_dirs(). The default is 0600.

create_dirs()

yes or no

Enables the creation of nonexisting directories. The default is no.

Example 4-7 shows a sample snippet for the destination components of the /etc/syslogng.conf file. This code instructs the Syslog-ng daemon to create separate log files for each host that sends syslog messages. The second part of the code (with the d_cisco_facility identifier) instructs the Syslog-ng daemon to create separate files for each message based on the facility code. The third part of the code (with the d_cisco_severity identifier) instructs the Syslog-ng daemon to create separate files for each message based on the severity code.

Example 4-7. Syslog-ng.conf—Destination Components

destination d_hosts {
    file("/var/log/HOSTS/$HOST.log"
    create_dirs(yes));
};
destination d_cisco_facility {
    file("/var/log/FACILITY/$FACILITY.log"
    create_dirs(yes));
};
destination d_cisco_severity {
    file("/var/log/LEVEL/$LEVEL.log"
    create_dirs(yes));
};

filter

The filter statement is used by Syslog-ng to route the syslog messages. You can use a Boolean expression to allow a message to pass through the filter. The syntax is as follows:

  
   filter 
   identifier { expression; };

The identifier is a text string that uniquely identifies the filters in the log statements. An expression can contain parentheses; the Boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT; and any of the functions listed in Table 4-9.

Table 4-9. Available Filter Functions in Syslog-ng

Filter Function Name

Description

facility( facility[,facility])

Matches messages having one of the listed facility codes.

level( pri[,pri1..pri2[,pri3]])

Matches messages based on priority or severity level. Multiple priorities are separated by commas, and range of priorities is specified by listing the upper and lower priorities separated by two periods.

program( regexp )

Matches messages by using a regular expression against the program name field of log messages.

host( regexp )

Matches messages by using a regular expression against the host name field of log messages.

match()

Tries to match a regular expression to the message itself. This feature is useful for customized filtering based on a specific text string in a message.

filter()

Calls another filter rule and evaluates its value.

Example 4-8 shows a sample snippet for the filter components of the /etc/syslog-ng.conf file. The first four filter statements sort the messages based on their facility code. For this filter to work as intended, the Netadmin must configure all the routers to use facility at local2, switches at local3, firewall at local4, and VPN concentrators at local5. If the Netadmin needs to catch all messages with severity level error and above, he can use the last filter (with identifier f_errandabove).

Example 4-8. Syslog-ng.conf—Filter Components

filter       f_router       { facility(local2); };
filter       f_switch       { facility(local3); };
filter       f_firewall     { facility(local4); };
filter       f_vpnbox       { facility(local5); };
filter       f_errandabove  { level(err..emerg);};

log

The log statement is used to combine the source, filter, and destination components. The syntax is as follows:

         
   log { source(s1); source(s2); ...
               filter(f1); filter(f2); ...
               destination(d1); destination(d2); ...
               flags(flag1[, flag2...]); };

Messages coming from any of the listed sources that match the listed filters are sent to all listed destinations. Because log statements are processed in the order they appear in the config file, a single log message might be sent to the same destination several times. This default behavior can be changed by using the flag parameters listed in Table 4-10.

Table 4-10. Log Statement Flags

Flag

Description

final

This flag means that the processing of log statements ends here. Note that this doesn't necessarily mean that matching messages will be stored once because they can be matching log statements processed prior to the current one.

fallback

This flag makes a log statement "fall back." A fallback statement means that only messages not matching any nonfallback log statements are dispatched.

catchall

This flag means that the source of the message is ignored; only the filters are taken into account when matching messages.

Example 4-9 shows a sample snippet for the log components of the /etc/syslog-ng.conf file.

Example 4-9. Syslog-ng.conf—Log Components

log { source(s_cisconetwork); filter(f_errandabove); destination(d_cisco_severity);
 };
log  { source(s_cisconetwork); filter(f_router); destination(d_cisco_facility); };
log  { source(s_cisconetwork); destination(d_hosts); };

The first log statement does the following:

  1. Listens for all network messages at UDP port 514.
  2. Filters to only select messages with a severity level between error and emergency.
  3. Sends the filtered messages to the respective log files. The name of destination file matches the severity level of the message. For example, the messages with severity level "error" will be sent to the "/var/log/LEVEL/err.log" file.

The second log statement does the following:

  1. Listens for all network messages at UDP port 514.
  2. Filters to only select messages with a facility of local2.
  3. Sends these filtered messages to respective log files. The name of the destination file matches the facility level of the message. For example messages from facility level "Local 2" will be sent to the "/var/log/FACILITY/local2.log" file.

The third log statement does the following:

  1. Listens for all network messages at UDP port 514.
  2. Sends these messages to the respective log files. The name of destination file matches the name of the host who generated the message. For example, messages from the host "router-dallas" will be sent to "/var/log/HOSTS/router-dallas.log" file.

Example 4-10 shows the working copy of the /etc/syslog-ng.conf file after editing. The new configuration is highlighted throughout the file. Note that this is the default /etc/syslogng.conf file that is installed with the apt-get install syslog-ng command on a Debian 3.0 stable release.

Example 4-10. Edited Copy of the /etc/syslog-ng/syslog-ng.conf File

# Syslog-ng configuration file, compatible with default Debian syslogd
# installation. Originally written by anonymous (I can't find his name)
# Revised, and rewrited by me (SZALAY Attila <sasa@debian.org>)
# First, set some global options.
#options { long_hostnames(off); sync(0); };
# NOTE THE NEW OPTIONS LIST                                                           

   options {                                                                             

   chain_hostnames(yes); keep_hostname(yes);                                             

   use_fqdn(yes);                                                                        

   use_dns(no);                                                                          

   sync(0);                                                                              

   };                                                                                    
#
# This is the default behavior of sysklogd package
# Logs may come from unix stream, but not from another machine.
#
source src { unix-dgram("/dev/log"); internal(); };
#
# If you wish to get logs from remote machine you should uncomment
# this and comment the above source line.
#
# source src { unix-dgram("/dev/log"); internal(); udp(); };
# the following source driver will enable listening for network mssg on udp514        

   source s_cisconetwork {udp(); };                                                      
# After that set destinations.
# First some standard logfile
#
destination authlog { file("/var/log/auth.log" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination syslog { file("/var/log/syslog" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination cron { file("/var/log/cron.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination daemon { file("/var/log/daemon.log" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination kern { file("/var/log/kern.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination lpr { file("/var/log/lpr.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination mail { file("/var/log/mail.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination user { file("/var/log/user.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
destination uucp { file("/var/log/uucp.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };

# This files are the log come from the mail subsystem.
#
destination mailinfo { file("/var/log/mail.info" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination mailwarn { file("/var/log/mail.warn" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination mailerr { file("/var/log/mail.err" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
# Logging for INN news system
#
destination newscrit { file("/var/log/news/news.crit" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination newserr { file("/var/log/news/news.err" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
destination newsnotice { file("/var/log/news/news.notice" owner("root")
 group("adm") perm(0640)); };
# Some `catch-all' logfiles.
#
destination debug { file("/var/log/debug" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640));
 };
destination messages { file("/var/log/messages" owner("root") group("adm")
 perm(0640)); };
# The root's console.
#
destination console { usertty("root"); };
# Virtual console.
#
destination console_all { file("/dev/tty8"); };
# The named pipe /dev/xconsole is for the nsole' utility. To use it,
# you must invoke nsole' with the -file' option:
#
#    $ xconsole -file /dev/xconsole [...]
#
destination xconsole { pipe("/dev/xconsole"); };
destination ppp { file("/var/log/ppp.log" owner("root") group("adm") perm(0640)); };
#  following destination drivers were added for cisco devices                         

   destination d_hosts {                                                                 

       file("/var/log/HOSTS/$HOST.log"                                                   

           create_dirs(yes));                                                            

           };                                                                            

   destination d_cisco_facility {                                                        

       file("/var/log/FACILITY/$FACILITY.log"                                            

       create_dirs(yes));                                                                

   };                                                                                    

   destination d_cisco_severity {                                                        

       file("/var/log/LEVEL/$LEVEL.log"                                                  

       create_dirs(yes));                                                                

   };                                                                                    

# Here's come the filter options. With this rules, we can set which
# message go where.
filter f_authpriv { facility(auth, authpriv); };
filter f_syslog { not facility(auth, authpriv); };
filter f_cron { facility(cron); };
filter f_daemon { facility(daemon); };
filter f_kern { facility(kern); };
filter f_lpr { facility(lpr); };
filter f_mail { facility(mail); };
filter f_user { facility(user); };
filter f_uucp { facility(uucp); };
filter f_news { facility(news); };
filter f_debug { not facility(auth, authpriv, news, mail); };
filter f_messages { level(info .. warn)
    and not facility(auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, mail, news); };
filter f_emergency { level(emerg); };
filter f_info { level(info); };
filter f_notice { level(notice); };
filter f_warn { level(warn); };
filter f_crit { level(crit); };
filter f_err { level(err); };
filter f_cnews { level(notice, err, crit) and facility(news); };
filter f_cother { level(debug, info, notice, warn) or facility(daemon, mail); };
filter ppp { facility(local2); };
# following filters were added for cisco devices                                      

   filter f_router { facility(local2); };                                                

   filter f_switch { facility(local3); };                                                

   filter f_firewall { facility(local4); };                                              

   filter f_vpnbox { facility(local5); };                                                

   filter f_errandabove { level(err..emerg); };                                          

log { source(src); filter(f_authpriv); destination(authlog); };
log { source(src); filter(f_syslog); destination(syslog); };
#log { source(src); filter(f_cron); destination(cron); };
log { source(src); filter(f_daemon); destination(daemon); };
log { source(src); filter(f_kern); destination(kern); };
log { source(src); filter(f_lpr); destination(lpr); };
log { source(src); filter(f_mail); destination(mail); };
log { source(src); filter(f_user); destination(user); };
log { source(src); filter(f_uucp); destination(uucp); };
log { source(src); filter(f_mail); filter(f_info); destination(mailinfo); };
log { source(src); filter(f_mail); filter(f_warn); destination(mailwarn); };
log { source(src); filter(f_mail); filter(f_err); destination(mailerr); };
log { source(src); filter(f_news); filter(f_crit); destination(newscrit); };
log { source(src); filter(f_news); filter(f_err); destination(newserr); };
log { source(src); filter(f_news); filter(f_notice); destination(newsnotice); };
log { source(src); filter(f_debug); destination(debug); };
log { source(src); filter(f_messages); destination(messages); };
log { source(src); filter(f_emergency); destination(console); };
#log { source(src); filter(f_cnews); destination(console_all); };
#log { source(src); filter(f_cother); destination(console_all); };

log { source(src); filter(f_cnews); destination(xconsole); };
log { source(src); filter(f_cother); destination(xconsole); };
log { source(src); filter(ppp); destination(ppp); };
# following logs were added for cisco devices                                         

   log { source(s_cisconetwork); filter(f_errandabove); destination(d_cisco_severity);   

     };                                                                                  

   log { source(s_cisconetwork); filter(f_router); destination(d_cisco_facility); };     

   log { source(s_cisconetwork); destination(d_hosts); };                                

   # config ends here                                                                    

Starting the Syslog-ng Daemon

After configuring the syslog-ng.conf file to deploy a Linux-based central syslog server, you must restart the daemon. The Syslog-ng daemon can be started or stopped using the init script, as follows:

  /etc/init.d/syslog-ng {start | stop | restart | reload | force-reload}

The following example shows the command that restarts the daemon:

  linuxbox:~# /etc/init.d/syslog-ng restart

Viewing the Logs

All the logs are stored in the location defined by the file destination-driver. Use the tail command to view the latest messages added to a particular log file. Examples are as follows:

  Linuxbox:~# tail /var/log/HOSTS/router-dallas.log
  Linuxbox:~# tail /var/log/LEVEL/err.log
  Linuxbox:~# tail /var/log/FACILITY/local2.log

Configuring a Windows-Based Syslog Server

The MS-Windows–based servers have a syslog-like feature called the Event Viewer. However, the message format used by the Event Viewer is proprietary to Microsoft and is not compatible with the UNIX syslog. To run a syslog server on MS-Windows machines, you need to install a third-party utility. One of the most popular syslog servers for Windows is Kiwi Syslogd Server. Some of the outstanding features of Kiwi Syslogd Server are as follows:

  • It is available as freeware, allowing users to run it indefinitely.
  • It runs as a service in the background.
  • It offers a GUI for easy management.
  • It uses both TCP and UDP ports, thus enabling the server to accept PIX TCP syslogs.
  • Its built-in syslog viewer displays messages in real time.
  • It features automatic log-file archiving based on a custom schedule.
  • It shows syslog statistics with a graph of syslog trends (last 24 hours/last 60 minutes).
  • It features a messages-per-hour alarm with sound or e-mail notification.
  • It has an alarm with sound or e-mail notification if the log file size exceeds a threshold.
  • It can send daily e-mails of syslog traffic statistics.

Deploying a Kiwi Syslog Server consists of following steps:

  1. Installing the syslog server
  2. Configuring the syslog server
  3. Starting the syslog server
  4. Viewing the syslog messages from the clients

Installing the Syslog Server

Download and save the service version of the Kiwi Syslog Daemon from http://www.kiwisyslog.com. The service version runs syslog as a service in the background instead of as an application on the desktop. At the time of this writing, the current stable version is 7.14, and the installation filename is Kiwi_Syslogd_Service.exe.

Begin the installation process by double-clicking the downloaded file and following the default values when prompted.

Configuring the Syslog Server

After the installation is complete, follow these steps to configure the Kiwi Syslog Server:

  1. Choose Start > Programs > Kiwi Enterprises > Kiwi Syslog Daemon > Kiwi Syslog Daemon to open the Kiwi Syslog Service Manager window (see Figure 4-3).
    04fig03.jpg

    Figure 4-3 Kiwi Syslog Manager

  2. Choose Manage > Install the Syslogd service to install the syslog service.
  3. After the syslog service is installed, the syslog server should be configured for archiving, e-mails, alarms, and TCP ports. To begin configuration, choose File > Setup to open the Kiwi Syslog Daemon Setup window, as shown in Figure 4-4.
    04fig04.jpg

    Figure 4-4 Kiwi Syslog Setup

  4. In the left pane of the setup window, click Archiving and select the New Archive schedule check box. Netadmins can choose archive frequencies ranging from hourly to yearly (or customized). Your choice should be based on the network environment, frequency of system backups, and amount of logs generated. Figure 4-5 shows daily archiving. Also, note that the Destination folder field indicates the network drive z:\logs. Archiving to a network drive helps to avoid loss of data because of local device failures.
    04fig05.jpg

    Figure 4-5 Kiwi Syslog Setup—Archiving

  5. In the E-mail section of the setup window, configure the e-mail settings according to your organization's mail server settings. Figure 4-6 shows that the syslog alarm and statistics are sent to the e-mail address spope@abc-company.com, using the mail server mail.abccompany.com. The mail recipient would see the messages as coming from syslogserver@abc-company.com.
    04fig06.jpg

    Figure 4-6 Kiwi Syslog Setup—E-Mail Setup

  6. In the Alarms section of the setup window, enter the settings shown in Figure 4-7. You should set a limit for the number of messages received in an hour because an unusually high number can indicate a problem. However, the exact number depends on your network environment. Also, setting up the alarms for disk space (see Figure 4-8) notifies the Netadmin before the server stops working because of insufficient disk space. This option is useful for Cisco PIX Firewalls that use TCP syslogs. Cisco PIX Firewalls, using the TCP syslog feature, stop processing traffic if the hard drive on the syslog server is full. This is a security feature, but it can effectively cause a denial of service for legitimate users.
    04fig07.jpg

    Figure 4-7 Kiwi Syslog Setup—Message Count

    04fig08.jpg

    Figure 4-8 Kiwi Syslog Setup—Disk Space

  7. To configure the syslog server to listen over TCP ports, click Inputs > TCP in the setup window and enter the settings shown in Figure 4-9. Note that the TCP port 1468 is the default port used by PIX for TCP syslogs.
    04fig09.jpg

    Figure 4-9 Kiwi Syslog Setup—TCP

  8. Now that the syslog server is configured, save the settings and close the setup window by clicking the OK button.

Starting the Syslog Server

Start the Syslog service by choosing Manage > Start the Syslogd service. The status bar briefly displays the message The syslog server has been started.

The server is now ready to accept the syslog messages.

Viewing Messages on the Syslog Server

To test the operation of the syslog server, choose File > Send test message to localhost in the Service Manager window.

The Service Manager window displays the message shown in Figure 4-10.

04fig10.jpg

Figure 4-10 Kiwi Syslog Manager

By default, the syslog server saves all logs to the following text file: C:\Program Files\Syslogd\Logs\SyslogCatchAll.txt.

To view the logs, open the SyslogCatchAll.txt file in a text editor. Example 4-11 shows the sample content of the SyslogCatchAll.txt file as viewed using Windows Notepad.

Example 4-11. Contents of the SyslogCatchAll.txt File

2005-04-16 21:50:56 Local7.Notice     192.168.0.10       9071: Apr 16 20:50:57.852
 PST: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty0 (192.168.0.150)
2005-04-16 21:50:56 Local7.Notice     192.168.0.10       9072: Apr 16 20:50:58.388
 PST: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Loopback0, changed state to administratively down
2005-04-16 21:50:58 Local7.Notice     192.168.0.10       9073: Apr 16 20:50:59.380
 PST: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to
 down
2005-04-16 21:51:13 Local4.Debug     192.168.0.20      %PIX-7-710005: UDP request
 discarded from 192.168.0.151/33375 to inside:192.168.0.255/sunrpc
2005-04-16 21:51:17 Local4.Debug     192.168.0.20      %PIX-7-710005: UDP request
 discarded from 192.168.0.151/33375 to inside:192.168.0.255/sunrpc
2005-04-16 21:51:22 Local7.Notice     192.168.0.10       9074: Apr 16 20:51:23.588
 PST: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty0 (192.168.0.150)
2005-04-16 21:51:23 Local7.Error      192.168.0.10      9075: Apr 16 20:51:24.771
 PST: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Loopback0, changed state to up
2005-04-16 21:51:23 Local7.Notice     192.168.0.10      9076: Apr 16 20:51:25.763
 PST: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to up
2005-04-16 21:58:12 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9077: .Apr 16 20:58:12.142
 PST: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty0 (192.168.0.150)
2005-04-16 21:58:45 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9078: .Apr 17 04:58:45.596
 UTC: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty0 (192.168.0.150)
2005-04-16 21:58:49 Local4.Debug    192.168.0.20       %PIX-7-710005: UDP request
 discarded from 192.168.0.151/33382 to inside:192.168.0.255/sunrpc
2005-04-16 21:58:57 Local4.Debug    192.168.0.20       %PIX-7-710005: UDP request
 discarded from 192.168.0.151/33382 to inside:192.168.0.255/sunrpc
2005-04-16 21:59:07 Local4.Debug    192.168.0.20       %PIX-7-710005: UDP request
 discarded from 192.168.0.151/33382 to inside:192.168.0.255/sunrpc
2005-04-16 21:59:09 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9079: .Apr 17 04:59:08.748
 UTC: %LINK-5-CHANGED: Interface Loopback0, changed state to administratively down
2005-04-16 21:59:09 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9080: .Apr 17 04:59:09.740
 UTC: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to
 down
2005-04-16 21:59:11 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9081: .Apr 17 04:59:11.324
 UTC: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by vty0 (192.168.0.150)
2005-04-16 21:59:13 Local7.Error    192.168.0.10       9082: .Apr 17 04:59:12.998
 UTC: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Loopback0, changed state to up
2005-04-16 21:59:13 Local7.Notice    192.168.0.10      9083: .Apr 17 04:59:13.990
 UTC: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Loopback0, changed state to up

You can also directly open this file in MS-Excel to sort the messages. Moreover, you can choose other file formats for the log files by selecting options on the Log file format drop-down menu in the Kiwi Syslog Daemon Setup window. To navigate to the choices (from the Kiwi Syslog Service Manager window), choose File > Setup to launch the Kiwi Syslog Daemon Setup window. From within this Setup window, navigate to Rules > Default > Actions > Log to file > Log File Format.

To view a graphical summary of syslog statistics, choose View > View Syslog Statistics in the Service Manager window. Fig 4-11 shows the 1-hour history report for syslog statistics. Each bar represents the number of messages received during each 1-minute interval. The chart scrolls from right to left, and the rightmost bar (0) indicates the current traffic.

Apart from the 1-hour history report, the Syslog Statistics windows also features four other tabs, as shown in Figure 4-11. These tabs are History (24hr), Severity, Top 20 Hosts, and Counters. The History (24hr) tab shows a bar chart of the last 24 hours of traffic and is similar to the 1-hour history window.

04fig11.jpg

Figure 4-11 Syslog Statistics

The Severity tab lists a summary of messages by priority level. The Top 20 Hosts tab comes in handy for quickly identifying chatty hosts. A large number of messages from a particular host indicates a problem on that device.

The Counters tab reports the traffic and error statistics for the syslog server. The Messages - Average counter is handy for setting maximum thresholds for alarm notification.

Securing Syslog Servers

So far, you have learned about deploying Linux- and Windows-based syslog servers to collect syslog messages from Cisco devices in a network. However, regardless of the type of operating system or the type of the syslog server, the biggest drawback of the syslog protocol is security. The syslog protocol inherently lacks security for the following reasons:

  • Clear text— Because a syslog sends its information in clear text, a sniffer on the network can easily capture the messages. To avoid this, syslog messages should be sent on a separate network using a second network interface, if possible. You can also use IP Security (IPSec) tunnels to encrypt the traffic flowing to the syslog server.
  • UDP— Because syslog uses UDP, an attacker can spoof the source address and send spurious messages to the syslog server. Users should use syslog over TCP, if possible, to mitigate this threat.
  • Centralized location— While centralized logging is good for Netadmins, it is equally good for attackers. If the central syslog server is compromised, the attacker can delete all the syslog messages to clean up his trail. Netadmins should regularly update the syslog server with the latest service packs and security patches.
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