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A guide to building and modifying Tcl scripts to automate network administration tasks
Streamline Cisco network administration and save time with Tcl scripting
Cisco networking professionals are under relentless pressure to accomplish more, faster, and with fewer resources. The best way to meet this challenge is to automate mundane or repetitive tasks wherever possible. In this book, three Cisco experts show you how to use Tcl scripting for Cisco IOS devices to do just that.
You’ll learn easy techniques for creating, using, and modifying Tcl scripts that run directly on Cisco network devices from the Cisco IOS command line. The authors first teach basic Tcl commands and concepts for capturing and manipulating data and for querying or controlling Cisco equipment. Building on these core skills, they show you how to write scripts that automate and streamline many common IOS configuration, monitoring, and problem-solving tasks.
The authors walk through the entire script development process, including planning and flowcharting what you want to accomplish, formatting your code, adding comments, and troubleshooting script errors. They also present many downloadable sample scripts, along with practical guidance for adapting them to your own environment.
Whatever your role in managing, monitoring, or securing Cisco IOS networks and equipment, this book will help you get the job done more rapidly and efficiently.
Ray Blair, CCIE No. 7050, is a Cisco vertical solutions architect specializing in large network designs. He has more than 20 years of experience in designing, implementing, and maintaining networks, and maintains three CCIE certifications.
Arvind Durai, CCIE No. 7016, Advanced Services Technical Leader for Cisco, specializes in supporting major Cisco enterprise customers in finance, manufacturing, e-commerce, government, and healthcare. He holds CCIEs in Routing and Switching, and in Security.
John Lautmann, Cisco Software Engineer, has developed and enhanced network management software for twelve years, and holds six patents. He has helped develop new Cisco IOS features ranging from data link switching to IOS Tcl Interpeter and digitally signed Tcl scripts.
This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.
Covers: Network Administration
$60.00 USA / $72.00 CAN
10 of 10 people found the following review helpful
TCL Scripting for Cisco IOS,
This review is from: TcL Scripting for Cisco IOS (Networking Technology) (Paperback)Though it's been a few years, I was originally a programmer by trade before becoming a network engineer so I was excited to get my hands on Ray and Team's latest book on scripting in TCL for Cisco IOS.
I was not disappointed. This is the definitive book on harnessing the power of EEM and TCL for managing a network and is a "must have" reference for every administrators bookshelf.
I was not fluent in TCL when I began and the chapter on the basics gave me exactly what I needed to know to get started including where to get the distribution (if you don't happen to have access to an IOS router to practice on). , TCL is available on the [...] site, a great place to get other (free) scripting languages as well, Perl being one of my favorites at the moment.
After you learn the basics of TCL and then how to access the IOS command set, they take you on a tour of Embedded Event Manager (EEM) and I must say this has to be one of the best descriptions of EEM... Read more
6 of 6 people found the following review helpful
easy to learn,
This review is from: TcL Scripting for Cisco IOS (Networking Technology) (Paperback)Some 15 years ago I learnt Tcl/Tk in another job, then never met it again till this book. I thought Tcl was passe, but it turns out that Cisco has decided upon a usage vis-a-vis their hardware. The book demonstrates that Tcl is a simple language. Any experienced sysadmin or programmer will have no problem. In the text, one quite short chapter suffices to cover the germane syntax. The rest of the book explains how to use Tcl to give commands to Cisco equipment, typically a router, and how to understand the results.
The examples, with the caveat below, have no graphics. No Tk. In a way, the Cisco implementation takes the programmer back to roots Tcl of the late 80s, before Tk was put together as the GUI for Tcl.
The book will make more sense to the reader if you are already well versed in network administration and specifically have already administered Cisco equipment. The book wastes no time in explaining concepts like Network Address Translation, or the opening... Read more
5 of 5 people found the following review helpful
A Good Introduction,
This review is from: TcL Scripting for Cisco IOS (Networking Technology) (Paperback)The first thing that I'd say about this book is to second the authors recommendation that you start this whole Tcl project by downloading the Tcl interpreter from tcl.tk onto your PC and practice with it there. They have versions for Windows, Apple and several flavors of Unix. To quote the authors of this book: "This is probably a better place to start, rather than practicing on production equipment, especially if you want to keep your job."
If you are not familiar with it, Tcl (usually pronounced tickle) is a full fledged programming language. It's usually interpreted so that it runs a bit slower than other languages but is much faster to develop programs since you eliminate the compile step. If you've programmed in any language, the introduction in Chapter 2 is probably enough to get you started. There is also a lot of programming information on the tcl.tk web site and several books on the language.
The rest of this book is an introduction to the particular... Read more
Chapter 1 The Origin of Tcl 1
Tcl and Cisco IOS Software 3
Embedded Event Manager and Tcl 4
Restriction of Tcl in IOS 4
Tcl with EEM Support in IOS 5
Using Tcl Scripts in the Network 8
Troubleshooting Problems 8
Monitoring the Network 8
Adding Intelligence to Cisco IOS Protocols 9
Chapter 2 Tcl Interpreter and Language Basics 11
Simple Variables in Tcl 12
Storing Variables 12
Viewing Variables 13
The append Command 13
The incr Command 13
Representation of Variables in Tcl 14
Command Substitution 14
Variable Substitution 15
for Command 22
foreach Command 23
while Command 23
if Command 26
switch Command 27
Chapter 3 Tcl Functioning in Cisco IOS 33
Understanding the Tcl Interpreter in Cisco IOS 33
Using Cisco IOS Exec-Mode Parser in the Tcl Shell 34
Entering an IOS Command into the Tcl Command Interpreter 35
Using Tcl to Enter Commands 36
Copying a Tcl Script to a Cisco IOS Device 38
Fetching a Cisco IOS Tcl Script from a Remote Device 41
Using Tcl to Examine the Cisco IOS Device Configuration 41
Using Tcl to Modify the Router Configuration 43
Using Tcl with SNMP to Check MIB Variables 44
Other Uses of SNMP 44
Enabling SNMP on a Cisco IOS Device 47
Querying the Configuration of a Cisco IOS Device Using SNMP 48
Modifying the Configuration of a Cisco IOS Device Using SNMP 51
Chapter 4 Embedded Event Manager (EEM) 55
EEM Architecture 55
EEM Server 56
Event Detectors 57
Software Release Support for EEM 60
Platform and IOS Considerations for EEM 65
Writing an EEM Applet 66
Practical Example of an Event Trigger 68
Using Object Tracking as an Event Trigger 69
Creating Applet Actions 70
Examples of EEM Applets 70
Configuring the IP SLA Sender and Responder 72
Applet and IP SLA Route Failover Example 74
Applet That Monitors the Default Route 83
Applet and Application Failover with a Network Address Translation Example 88
Using EEM and Tcl Scripts 96
Programming Policies with Tcl 97
Tcl Example Used to Check for Interface Errors 98
Tcl Example Used to Check the CPU Utilization 104
Chapter 5 Advanced Tcl Operation in Cisco IOS 111
Introduction to the Syslog Protocol 112
Configuring Syslog Server Parameters in Cisco IOS 113
Syslog Tcl Script Example 116
Syslog Tcl Script Sample Output 118
Sending Syslog Messages to a File 121
Syslog Server Script Procedures 124
Syslog Server Script Body 127
Putting the Syslog Script into Operation 129
Introduction to Embedded Syslog Manager 130
Filtering Syslog Messages 130
ESM Global Variables 134
Rebuilding a Syslog Message from Its Components 136
Displaying/Adding ESM Tcl Script Filters 137
Introduction to Embedded Menu Manager 139
Using Tcl as a Web Server 144
Obtaining a Free Web Server Application 147
Reverse Engineering the Web Server 149
Creating Your Own Simple Web Page 152
Creating a Web Page Using IOS show Commands 154
Adding User Input to the Web Page 157
Introduction to IP SLA 160
Adding the IP SLA Measurement to the Web Page 162
Modifying the Button and Label for User Input 162
Creating a Tcl Script to Display IP SLA Measurement Results 163
Putting the New Tcl Scripts into Operation 165
Reformatting the IP SLA Output for Readability 167
Automatic Removal and Creation of IP SLA Entries 170
Displaying the Results of the IP SLA Measurement with Auto-Refresh 174
Tcl Script Refresh Policy 177
SNMP Proxy Event Detector 178
Remote-Procedure Call Requests 179
Multiple-Event Support for Event Correlation 180
Using the clear Command 181
Chapter 6 Tcl Script Examples 183
Creating an Application from Start to Finish 183
Determine What You Want to Accomplish 183
Creating a Flowchart 184
Deciding What the User Interface Should Look Like 185
Write the Code in Pseudo-Code 187
Before You Begin 188
Starting to Program the Application 190
Configuring the Web Server 190
Writing Code for the MPLS VPN Script 191
Configuring HTML 209
Writing Code for the MPLS CFG Script 216
Troubleshooting as You Go 228
Using Tcl to Troubleshoot Network Problems 230
Monitoring the Console for Events 233
Creating a Web Application for Remote SNMP Graphing 236
Chapter 7 Security in Tcl Scripts 243
Introduction to PKI Infrastructure 243
PKI Prerequisite 244
Confidentiality with PKI 244
Digital Signatures with PKI 245
Using Digital Signatures to Sign a Tcl Script 247
Step 1: Decide on the Final Tcl Script Contents (Myscript) 248
Step 2: Generate a Public/Private Key Pair 248
Step 3: Generate a Certificate with the Key Pair 250
Step 4: Generate a Detached S/MIME pkcs7 Signature for Myscript Using the Private Key 250
Step 5: Modify the Format of the Signature to Match the Cisco Style for Signed Tcl Scripts and Append
It to the End of Myscript 251
Tcl Script-Failure Scenario 256
Scaling Tcl Script Distribution 257
Appendix A Cisco IOS Tcl Commands Quick Reference 259
TOC, 9781587059452, 5/17/10
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