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BGP Fundamentals

Chapter Description

In This sample chapter from Troubleshooting BGP: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP, the authors cover BGP Messages and Inter-Router Communication, Basic BGP Configuration for IOS, IOS XR, and NX-OS, IBGP Rules, EBGP Rules, and BGP Route Aggregation

BGP Communities

BGP communities provide additional capability for tagging routes and for modifying BGP routing policy on upstream and downstream routers. BGP communities can be appended, removed, or modified selectively on each attribute as the route travels from router to router.

BGP communities are an optional transitive BGP attribute that can traverse from autonomous system to autonomous system. A BGP community is a 32-bit number that can be included with a route. A BGP community can be displayed as a full 32-bit number (0-4,294,967,295) or as two 16-bit numbers (0-65535):(0-65535) commonly referred to as new-format.

Private BGP communities follow the convention that the first 16-bits represent the AS of the community origination, and the second 16-bits represent a pattern defined by the originating AS. The private BGP community pattern could vary from organization to organization, do not need to be registered, and could signify geographic locations for one AS while signifying a method of route advertisement in another AS. Some organizations publish their private BGP community patterns on websites, such as http://www.onesc.net/communities/.

In 2006, RFC 4360 expanded BGP communities’ capabilities by providing an extended format. Extended BGP communities provide structure for various classes of information and are commonly used for VPN Services.

IOS XR and NX-OS devices display BGP communities in new-format by default, and IOS nodes display communities in decimal format by default. IOS nodes can display communities in new-format with the global configuration command ip bgp-community new-format.

Example 1-13 displays the BGP community in decimal format on top, and in new-format on bottom.

Example 1-13 BGP Community Formats

! DECIMAL FORMAT                                          
R3# show bgp 192.168.1.1
! Output omitted for brevity                              
BGP routing table entry for 192.168.1.1/32, version 6
Community: 6553602 6577023
! New-Format                                              
R3# show bgp 192.168.1.1
! Output omitted for brevity                              
BGP routing table entry for 192.168.1.1/32, version 6
Community: 100:2 100:23423

IOS and NX-OS devices do not advertise BGP communities to peers by default. Communities are enabled on a neighbor-by-neighbor basis with the BGP address-family configuration command neighbor ip-address send-community [standard | extended | both], and NX-OS devices use the command send-community [standard | extended | both] under the neighbor address-family configuration. Standard communities are sent by default, unless the optional extended or both keywords are used.

IOS XR advertises BGP communities to IBGP peers by default, but EBGP peers require the neighbor address-family configuration command send-community-ebgp for advertising standard BGP communities, and the command send-extended-community-ebgp to advertise extended BGP communities. Both commands are required if both community formats are to be sent to an EBGP peer.

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