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BGP Fundamentals

Chapter Description

In This sample chapter from Troubleshooting BGP: A Practical Guide to Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP, the authors cover BGP Messages and Inter-Router Communication, Basic BGP Configuration for IOS, IOS XR, and NX-OS, IBGP Rules, EBGP Rules, and BGP Route Aggregation

IBGP Scalability

The inability for BGP to advertise a prefix learned from one IBGP peer to another IBGP peer can lead to scalability issues within an AS. The formula n(n-1)/2 provides the number of sessions required where n represents the number of routers. A full mesh topology of 5 routers requires 10 sessions, and a topology of 10 routers requires 45 sessions. IBGP scalability becomes an issue for large networks.

Route Reflectors

RFC 1966 introduces the concept that an IBGP peering can be configured so that it reflects routes to another IBGP peer. The router reflecting routes is known as a route reflector (RR), and the router receiving reflected routes is a route reflector client. Three basic rules involve route reflectors and route reflection:

  • Rule #1: If a RR receives a NLRI from a non-RR client, the RR advertises the NLRI to a RR client. It does not advertise the NLRI to a non-route-reflector client.

  • Rule #2: If a RR receives a NLRI from a RR client, it advertises the NLRI to RR client(s) and non-RR client(s). Even the RR client that sent the advertisement receives a copy of the route, but it discards the NLRI because it sees itself as the route originator.

  • Rule #3: If a RR receives a route from an EBGP peer, it advertises the route to RR client(s) and non-RR client(s).

Figure 1-10 demonstrates the route reflector rules.

Figure 1-10

Figure 1-10 Route Reflector Rules

Only route reflectors are aware of this change in behavior because no additional BGP configuration is performed on route-reflector clients. BGP route reflection is specific to each address-family. The command neighbor ip-address route-reflector-client is used on IOS nodes, and the command route-reflector-client is used on IOS XR and NX-OS devices under the neighbor address-family configuration.

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