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Building Service-Aware Networks: The Next-Generation WAN/MAN


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  • Copyright 2010
  • Edition: 1st
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  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-788-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-788-5

Building Service-Aware Networks

The Next-Generation WAN/MAN

Muhammad Afaq Khan, CCIE® No. 9070

A thorough introduction to the ASR 1000 series router

Building Service-Aware Networks is the insider’s guide to the next-generation Aggregation Services Router (ASR) 1000. Authored by a leading Cisco® expert, this book offers practical, hands-on coverage for the entire system lifecycle, including planning, setup and configuration, migration, and day-to-day management.

Muhammad Afaq Khan systematically introduces the ASR 1000’s evolved architecture, showing how the ASR 1000 can deliver major performance and availability improvements in tomorrow’s complex, collaborative, mobile, and converged network environments. Then, to help you plan your network deployments more effectively, the author walks you through realistic deploy-ment scenarios for IP routing, IP services, WAN optimization services, security services, and unified communications. He presents a wide variety of realistic, easy-to-adapt configuration examples for enterprise and provider inetworks, including everything from command-line interface (CLI) snippets to best practices for troubleshooting.

  • Understand tomorrow’s enterprise business requirements, the demand they create for routing infrastructure, and how the ASR 1000 meets them
  • Leverage the ASR 1000’s revolutionary system architecture to dramatically improve performance and availability
  • Select and qualify an enterprise edge platform for next-generation WANs
  • Understand ASR 1000 series architecture, hardware, software, packaging, licensing, and releases
  • Perform initial ASR 1000 setup and configuration
  • Implement In Service Software Upgrades (ISSU)
  • Size routers for enterprise and carrier environments
  • Consolidate multiple applications, platforms, and functions onto the ASR 1000
  • Troubleshoot ASR 1000 common system error messages, step by step

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Category: Networking

Covers: Routing and Switching

Online Sample Chapter

IP Routing Use Cases

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 12 and Index)

Table of Contents


Part I Overview of WAN Architectures

Chapter 1 Introduction to WAN Architectures

Introduction to WAN Solutions

Branch/Private WAN Aggregation Role

    Basic Feature Requirements

    Basic Service Level Agreement Requirements

Internet Edge Role

    Basic Feature Requirements

Data Center Interconnect

    Basic Feature Requirements

Large Branch WAN


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 2 Next-Generation WAN Architectures

The Evolution of Next-Generation WAN Architectures

Business Drivers Behind WAN Evolution

    Service Awareness and Integration

    Infrastructure Consolidation


    Security and Reliability

    Bandwidth Commoditization

    Carbon Footprint Reduction

    Regulatory Compliance

    Time to Adoption

    Mean Time to Understanding and Troubleshooting

How the Changing Business Requirements Relate to Network Infrastructure


Review Questions


Further Reading


Chapter 3 Selecting and Qualifying Enterprise Edge Platforms for Next-Generation WANs

Essential Attributes of an Enterprise Edge Platform

    Carrier-Class Routing

    True Services Integration

    Robust In-Built Quality of Service

    Flexible System Architecture

    Feature Velocity

    Common Sharing and Sparing for Investment Protection

    Interface Diversity and Density

    Power and Space Friendly

    Industry Standard Compliance

Qualifying the Enterprise WAN/MAN Edge Platform

    Anatomy of a Test Plan

        Test Scope and Objective

        Test Setup and Topology

        Test Resources

        Test Approach and Methodology

        Test Entry and Exit Criteria

        Test Schedule

        Test Results Reporting

        Test Case Details


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 4 Sizing Up a Router

What to Look for When Choosing a Router

Metrics for Benchmarking a Router

    Routing-Plane Performance and Scale

    Data-Plane Performance and Scale


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Part II ASR 1000 System Hardware, Software, and Configuration

Chapter 5 System Overview and Carrier-Class Attributes

Introduction to ASR 1000 Series Routers

ASR 1000 Carrier-Class Attributes




    Quality of Service

    ROI and Investment Protection

ASR 1000 Applications

    ASR 1000 Enterprise WAN Aggregation

    Enterprise Internet Gateway

    Enterprise Security Headend (Branch and Remote User Aggregation)

    Service Provider Layer 3 VPN

    Service Provider Layer 2 VPN

    Broadband Aggregation, Including FTTH and DSL LNS, LAC, and PTA

    High-End Customer Premises Equipment

Reinventing Enterprise Routing with the ASR 1000

    Cisco QuantumFlow Processor and Embedded Services

    True Carrier-Class Routing

        Chassis Design and Modularity

        Operating System Modularity

        In-Service Software Upgrade

        Separation of Planes

        Dealing with Oversubscription

        Integrated QoS

        BITS Reference Clock

        Nonstop Router Management

        Breadth and Diversity of LAN/WAN Interfaces

Introducing ASR 1000 System Hardware Components

    Chassis Options

    Chassis Slots Naming and Numbering

    Route Processor

    Embedded Service Processor

    SPA Interface Processor

Introducing ASR 1000 Software Components

    IOS XE

    RP Software

    ESP Software

    SIP Software

    IOSD and Linux Kernel

    System ROMMON

Basic Partitioning of the ASR 1000 System

    Routing Plane

    Data Plane

    Input/Output Plane

Introduction to ASR 1000 System Redundancy and Modularity


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 6 Cisco ASR 1000 Series Router Hardware and Software Details

Route Processor Overview

    Route Processor Functional Elements

        Front Panel

        CPU, DRAM, Bootflash, Hard Disk Drive, and Interconnect Application-Specific Integrated Circuits

    RP Initialization

    RP Packet Handling

    Hardware-Assisted Control-Plane Protection

    Legacy Protocol Traffic

ESP Overview

    ESP Functional Elements

    ESP Initialization

    ESP Packet Handling

    ESP and Crypto Engine

SPA Interface Processor Overview

High-Level System Software Architecture

    RP Software Details

        RP Chassis Manager

        RP Forwarding Manager

        RP Interface Manager

    ESP Software Details

        QFP Software

        ESP Forwarding Manager

        ESP Chassis Manager

        SIP Software Details

        SIP Chassis Manager

        SIP Interface Manager

        SPA Drivers

Day in the Life of a Packet

    Ingress Processing

    Arrival Processing

    Egress Processing


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 7 Cisco IOS XE Software Packaging, Releases, and Licensing

Cisco IOS XE Software Overview

Cisco IOS XE Software Packaging

    Software Redundancy

Cisco IOS XE Software Releases

Cisco IOS XE Software Licensing


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 8 Cisco ASR 1000 Initial Setup and Configuration

Booting the ASR 1000

Initial Cisco ASR 1000 Configuration

Understanding the Cisco ASR 1000 File System Structure


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 9 In-Service Software Upgrade and Software Modularity

Why ISSU Is Needed

    Operational Benefits

    Business Benefits

ASR 1000 ISSU Details

    A Consolidated Package ISSU on a Fully Redundant 6RU

    ISSU on 6RU System (with Dual RP and ESP) for IOSD Using Legacy issu Commands

    Subpackage ISSU on a Fully Redundant 6RU

Upgrading SIP/SPA Subpackages

Upgrading the RP-Specific Subpackages on the Active RP

Upgrading the ESP Subpackage on the Standby RP (Formerly Active)

Running Dual IOSD on a 2 or 4RU System


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Part III System Management and Troubleshooting

Chapter 10 Using the ASR 1000 Embedded Graphical User Interface

Introduction to the ASR 1000 Web GUI

Configuring the ASR 1000 GUI

Common Usage Examples


Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 11 Understanding ASR 1000 System Troubleshooting and Error Messages

Troubleshooting Methodology

    ASR 1000–Specific Troubleshooting Commands

Troubleshooting System Hardware and Software

    Displaying the Overall Processor and Memory Utilization on an ASR 1000 System

    Displaying IPv4-Related Drops for the Active QFP

    Displaying Overall QFP Memory Statistics for IRAM, DRAM, and SRAM Usage

    Displaying QFP Memory Statistics on a Per-IOS Feature and Internal-Usage Basis

    Tracking Control CPU Usage from the Linux Shell

    Tracking a Command Output Repeatedly Using the monitor Command

    Displaying the Status of Front-Panel LEDs Using the show platform hardware Command

    Displaying the Status of SPAs in a SIP

    Displaying Statistics for a Slot or SIP

    Displaying Drop Statistics for All Interfaces in the System

    Displaying the Interface-Level FIA for Both the Ingress and Egress Feature Set

    Displaying System Components Such as RP, ESP, and SIP Insertion and Uptime

    Displaying QFP PPE Utilization Information

    Useful debug Commands

Troubleshooting IOS Features via Platform-Specific Commands

Common System Error Messages

    Message: “Warning: Filesystem Is Not Clean” During RP Boot

    Message: “%IOSXE-7-PLATFORM: F0: sntp: Resetting on Error x > y”

    Message: “%ASR1000_PEM-3-PEMFAIL: The PEM in Slot 0 Is Switched Off or Encountering a Failure Condition”


Review Questions


Further Reading

Part IV ASR 1000—Bringing Innovative Solutions to the Routing Industry

Chapter 12 IP Routing Use Cases

Introduction to the Scalable and Modular Control Plane on the ASR 1000

NSF/SSO, NSR, Graceful Restart to Ensure Robust Routing

    Use Case: Achieving High Availability Using NSF/SSO

Packet Capture Using Encapsulated Remote SPAN

    Use Case: Ethernet Frame Capture and Transport Across a Layer 3 Cloud

Achieving Segmentation Using MPLS over GRE and MPLS VPNs over GRE Solutions

    Use Case: Self-Managed MPLS and Enterprise Private WAN Segmentation

Scalable v4/VPNv4 Route Reflector

    Use Case: Route Reflection

Scalable and Flexible Internet Edge

    Use Case: Internet Gateway/Edge Router

Scalable Data Center Interconnect

    Use Case: Encrypting Traffic over an EoMPLS Psuedowire at Layer 2 Using TrustSec


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 13 IP Services Use Cases

Introduction to IOS IP Services on the ASR 1000

Scalable In-Built QoS Using QFP’s Traffic Manager

    Ingress SIP Buffering

    Traffic Manager Packet Buffering

        Unicast Packets

        Multicast Packets

        Punt Packet

    Egress SIP Buffering

    ESP Interconnect Scheduler Default Behavior (Aggregating All SIP Traffic)

    ASR 1000 Traffic Manager Priority Queues

Scalable Hierarchical QoS and Metro-E Use Case

Scalable IPv4 and IPv6 Multicast Acceleration Using Cisco QuantumFlow Processor

    Multicast High Availability on the ASR 1000

    Multicast Replication on the ESP

Scalable In-Built Multigigabit NAT

High-Speed Logging Using NetFlow v9 Format for NAT and Firewall

Scalable In-Built Multigigabit NBAR and FPM


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 14 Security Services Use Cases

Introduction to IOS Security Services on the Cisco ASR 1000

Secure Connectivity Solutions

    Introduction to IPsec Solutions on the Cisco ASR 1000

        IPsec Packet Flow (Ingress)

        IPsec Packet Flow (Egress)

    IPsec High-Availability Considerations

    IPsec and Interaction with IP Multicast

    Scalable Encryption with QoS Before/After Crypto Engine

    Scalable DMVPN Hub and Spoke

    Scalable GETVPN Group Member for Data Center and Large Branch Solutions

        Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Solution Benefits

        Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Solution Architecture Overview

        GETVPN Configuration Overview

        Cisco ASR 1000 Memory, Performance, and Scaling

        Caveats and Limitations

        Cisco ASR 1000 GETVPN Deployment Models

        Troubleshooting GETVPN on Cisco ASR 1000

Integrated Threat Control Solutions

    Introduction to Threat Control Solutions on the ASR 1000

    Using In-Built Firewall High Availability

    IOS Firewall Zone/Zone Pair Scale

    Scalable Multigigabit Router Firewall at the Internet Edge: Use Case


Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 15 WAN Optimization Services Use Cases

Introduction to WAN Optimization Solutions on the Cisco ASR 1000

    Using WCCPv2 for Web Caching

        Interaction of WCCPv2 with Other IOS Features

    WAN Optimization Through WAAS Integration

        Campus WAN Headend Deployment

        Branch Deployment

WAN Headend and IronPort’s WSA Appliance

Troubleshooting WCCPv2 on Cisco ASR 1000

Voice Header Compression Using Cisco IOS cRTP

Chapter Review Questions


Further Reading

Chapter 16 Unified Communications Services Use Cases

Introduction to Unified WAN Solutions on Cisco ASR 1000

Using Integrated CUBE

    CUBE (SP) Deployment Scenarios

        SP-to-SP Peering

        SP-to-Managed Enterprise and Residential SIP Trunking

        Business-to-Business Telepresence

Troubleshooting CUBE

Using the WebEx Node Services Module

    WebEx Node Deployment Architecture

    Deployment Considerations

Installation Steps


Review Questions


Further Reading

9781587057885   TOC   8/19/2009

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