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Integrated Cisco and UNIX Network Architectures


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
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  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2005
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 600
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-121-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-121-0

Design, build, and operate integrated gateway routing systems

  • Learn how to design, build, and administer integrated gateway routing systems
  • Identify the advantages and disadvantages of Cisco/UNIX integrated designs
  • Review lab exercises throughout the book that bring concepts to life
  • Encounter the fascinating world of dynamic UNIX routing and TCP/IP stacks
  • Understand the way forwarding and signaling are implemented in the UNIX world
  • Gain proficiency with tunnels and VPNs
  • Utilize advanced features such as high availability, NAT, bandwidth management, policy routing, and multicast architectures
  • Explore Linux and BSD networking concepts

UNIX gateways introduce massive performance possibilities at a fraction of the price of dedicated proprietary appliances by performing network tasks entirely in software. With Cisco Systems routers dominating the Internet and enterprise networking and UNIX routing and gateway solutions spreading from within server farms and data centers, new opportunities and possibilities arise for system and network administrators who understand the benefit of integrated designs. For example, the use of UNIX gateways can enable intrusion detection, firewalling, cable and DSL access, terminal servers and access concentrators, VPNs, roaming user support, and other LAN and WAN services. Far from being mutually exclusive, Cisco devices, UNIX operating systems, and open source applications can enjoy a peaceful, perhaps even inevitable, coexistence for years to come. Integrated Cisco and UNIX Network Architectures shows how Cisco routers, switches, and firewalls seamlessly work together with UNIX operating systems in an integrated networking and security environment.

Integrated Cisco and UNIX Network Architectures reveals not just the feasibility but also the desirability of Cisco/UNIX integrated routing with regard to systems integration, interoperability, and feature requirements. Detailed, progressively complex lab scenarios emphasize enterprise and ISP requirements, casting light on the similarities and differences of these two worlds. Platform issues, such as behavior of firewall filters, kernel features, and proper standards compliance, are discussed, analyzed with sniffers, and tested with handcrafted traffic from packet generators and test applications.

If you want to master and maximize the operation of your UNIX and Cisco network architectures, this book shows you how.

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press¿ which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1    Operating System Issues and Features—The Big Picture   

Why UNIX Is Viable   

Routing, Forwarding, and Switching Approaches   

The Evolution of AT&T System V (SVR4) UNIX and 4.4-Lite BSD Derivatives   

Operating Systems Design Considerations   

Kernel-Space Modules Versus User-Space Applications   

Cisco IOS Software   





GNU Hurd/Mach   

Other Commercial Unices   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 2    User-Space Routing Software   

The GNU Zebra Routing Software   

Feature Description and Architecture of Zebra   

Installation and Startup of Zebra   

The Development Roadmap of Zebra   

The Quagga Project   

The routed Daemon   

Feature Description of routed   

Installation of routed   

Lab 2-1: routed   

GateD 3.6   

Feature Description   

Installation of GateD 3.6   

Reliance on Service   

Maturity, Scalability, and Stability of GateD 3.6   

MRT (Multithreaded Routing Toolkit)   

Feature Description of MRT   

Installation of MRT   

Maturity, Scalability, and Stability of MRT   

The Bird Project   

Feature Description of Bird   

Installation of Bird   

Maturity, Scalability, and Stability of Bird   

The XORP Project   

Feature Description of XORP   

The MIT Click Modular Router Project   

XORP Installation   

Maturity, Scalability, and Stability of XORP   

Multicast Routing Daemons: mrouted and pimd   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 3    Kernel Requirements for a Full-Featured Lab   

The sysctl Facility   

IP Forwarding Control and Special Interfaces   

VLAN Subinterface Support and Trunk Termination (802.1Q)   

Alias or Secondary Interfaces   

Ethernet Channel Bonding   

Interface Cloning   

ECMP (Equal-Cost Multi-Path)   

Driver Support for LAN/WAN Interface Cards   

Encapsulation Support for WAN Interface Cards   

Support for Bridging Interfaces   

TCP Tuning   

Tunnel Support   

Multicast Support   

Firewall and Traffic-Shaping Support   

The IPv6 Protocol Stack   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 4    Gateway WAN/Metro Interfaces   

Dial-on-Demand Routing: Analog and ISDN Dialup   

Wireless Technologies   


Powerline Communications   

Ethernet to the Home/Premises   

Cisco Long-Reach Ethernet (LRE)   

Synchronous Serial Interface and PRIs   

ATM Interfaces   

Linux ATM Support   

The FreeBSD HARP ATM Subsystem   

Cable Access (Ethernet Interfaces)   

DSL Access   

Lab 4-1: Synchronous Serial Connection Setup   

Exercise 4-1: Frame Relay Point-to-Multipoint Setup   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 5    Ethernet and VLANs   

Ethernet NICs   

Hubs, Bridges, and Multilayer Switches   

Access Ports, Uplinks, Trunks, and EtherChannel Port Groups   

Alias Interfaces   

VLAN Configurations   

Linux VLAN Capabilities   

FreeBSD/OpenBSD VLAN Capabilities   

A Few Words on Cabling   

Lab 5-1: FreeBSD Bridge Cluster Lab   

Lab 5-2: Linux Bridging and the Spanning Tree   

Lab 5-3: OpenBSD Bridging and Spanning Tree   

A Few Words on Layer 2 Security   

Exercise 5-1: Linux/FreeBSD Ethernet Channel Bonding   

Exercise 5-2: STP Operation   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 6    The Analyzer Toolbox, DHCP, and CDP   

Terminal Emulation Software   

Secure Shell Tools   

Protocol Analyzer   

Statistical Tools   

Port Scanners   

socklist and netstat   

Ping and Traceroute Combinations   

DNS Auditing Tools   

Traffic and Packet Generators   

What You Need in a Small Toolbox   

The BSD ipfilter Traffic Generator   

The Linux Kernel Packet Generator   

Performance-Testing and Network-Benchmarking Tools   

Lab 6-1: Using Sniffers—DHCP Example   

Lab 6-2: UNIX CDP Configuration   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 7    The UNIX Routing and ARP Tables   

Address Resolution: ARP and RARP   

Proxy ARP   

ARP Cache   

Static ARP Entries   

Gratuitous ARP   

Reverse ARP (RARP), the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), and Dynamic H

Configuration Protocol (DHCP)   


Inverse ARP (InARP), UNARP, and DirectedARP   

Power of the Linux ip, netstat, and route Utilities   

ARP-Related Tools   

Lab 7-1: ARP Security Issues   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 8    Static Routing Concepts   

Administrative Distance and Metric   

Classful Routing, VLSM, and CIDR   

Default Gateways, Default Routes, and Route(s) of Last Resort   

Route Caches, Routing Tables, Forwarding Tables, and the ISO Context   

The Near and Far End of a Link   

The route Command—Adding and Removing Routes   

Route Cloning   

Blackholes and Reject/Prohibit Routes   

Floating Static Routes   

Equal-Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) Routing   

Lab 8-1: Interface Metrics, Floating Static Routes, and Multiple Equal-Cost Rou


Linux TEQL (True Link Equalizer)   

Adding Static Routes via Routing Daemons   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 9    Dynamic Routing Protocols—Interior Gateway Protocols   

Interaction with the UNIX Routing Table   

Classification of Dynamic Routing Protocols   

Link-State Protocols   

Distance-Vector Protocols   

From RIP to EIGRP   

RIP—A Distance-Vector Routing Protocol (Bellman-Ford-Fulkerson)   


Lab 9-1: RIPv2 Scenario   

Lab 9-2: RIP Neighbor Granularity   

Lab 9-3: RIPv2 via GateD   

Exercise 9-1: RIPv2 over Frame Relay Topologies   

Exercise 9-2: RIPv2 Metric Manipulation and Redistribution Control   

Introduction to Link-State Routing Protocols   

Area Concepts   

The Full Picture—Autonomous Systems and Areas   


Lab 9-4: Leaf-Area Design Featuring GateD and Cisco IOS   

Exercise 9-3: Exporting Loopback Addresses   

Lab 9-5: Leaf-Area Design Featuring Zebra and Cisco IOS Software   

ECMP—Manipulating Metric and Distance   

The Art of Redistribution   

Lab 9-6: Route Filtering and Redistribution   

Lab 9-7: OSPF Authentication   

Route Tagging and Multiple OSPF Processes/Instances   

IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System)   

Disadvantages of IS-IS   

Advantages of IS-IS   

Relevant IS-IS Standards   

Current IS-IS Developments   

Lab 9-8: IS-IS Flat Backbone Area   

Lab 9-9: IS-IS Backbone and Leaf Area   

Lab 9-10: OSPF Point-to-Point Lab   

Exercise 9-4: Dynamic Routing in Point-to-Multipoint Scenarios   

Advanced OSPF Features   

Traffic-Engineering Extensions   

Opaque LSAs   

Quagga’s Implementation   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 10    ISP Connectivity with BGPv4—An Exterior Gateway Path-Vector Rout

Protocol for Interdomain Routing   

Exterior Gateway Protocols: EGP and BGPv4   

BGPv4: Introductory Thoughts   

Neighboring Relations   

Limitations of IGPs   

Flavors of BGPv4   

BGP Message Types   

Capabilities Negotiation   

BGP Finite State Machine   

BGP Path Attributes   

BGP Active Path-Selection Criteria   

BGP Loop Detection   

Provider-Independent Addresses (PI Prefixes, Provider Aggregates)   

Internet Exchange Points   

EBGP and EBGP Multihop   

Weighted Route Dampening   

The next-hop-self Command   

IGP Synchronization   

The soft-reconfiguration Command   

Multiple BGP Instances and Views and the Route Server Context   

IBGP Full Mesh, Route Reflectors, and Confederation   

Lab 10-1: Route Reflection   

Exercise 10-1: BGP and IGP Interaction   

Exercise 10-2: BGP Synchronization   

Lab 10-2: Confederation   

Lab 10-3: Multi-AS BGP Topology   

Lab 10-4: BGP with GateD   

Avoiding Single Points of Failure   

Single-Homed Nontransit (Stub) Scenario with a Private AS   

Multi-Homed Nontransit (Stub) Scenario   

Transit Services   

Route Server and Routing Registries   

Requesting ASNs and IP Addresses   

Zebra Route Server with Multiple Views   

The Route Server Next Generation Project (RSng)   

Internet Routing Registries   

The Whois/Rwhois Interface   


The IRRToolSet   

Looking Glasses   

Cisco IOS Configuration   

The Looking Glass CGI Script and HTML Code   

Zebra Looking Glasses   

Routing Policies   

Defining an AS Policy   

BGP Route Maps and Filters   

BGP Communities and Extended Communities   

Special BGP Topics   

BGP “Pseudo” Load Balancing   

BGP Security Considerations   

Multiprotocol BGP Extensions   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 11    VPN Technologies, Tunnel Interfaces, and Architectures   

The Rationale for Tunnels in Routing Environments   

The VPNC Concept of VPNs   

The OSI Stack Perspective   

Internet, Intranet, and Extranet Terminology   

IP-IP Tunnel   

Lab 11-1: IP-IP Tunnel Linux-to-FreeBSD   

Lab 11-2: IP-IP Tunnel OpenBSD-to-Cisco   

Generic Router Encapsulation (GRE) Tunnel   

Lab 11-3: GRE Tunnel OpenBSD-to-Cisco   

Lab 11-4: GRE Tunnel Linux-to-FreeBSD (Featuring gre-tun)   

Lab 11-5: Linux-to-Cisco GRE Tunnel   

Exercise 11-1: GRE Advanced Features   

Special Multicast and IPv6 Tunneling (RFC 2473, RFC 3053)   

Cisco L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding)   

PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunnel Protocol)   

Exercise 11-2: PPTP on UNIX   

L2TP (Layer 2 Tunnel Protocol)   

Securing L2TP Using IPSec (RFC 3193)   

L2TP Operation   

L2TPv3 and Related “Work in Progress”   

L2TPd for UNIX: A Project in Transition   

Exercise 11-3: L2TP   

Mobile IP   

User-Space Tunneling   

CIPE (Crypto IP Encapsulation)   

V-TUN (Virtual Tunnel)   


Stunnel/SSLwrap—SSL/TLS-Based “Wrapped” Tunnels and SSL Proxying/Relaying   

Secure Shell (SSH)   

IPSec Foundation   

IPSec ESP/AH and Tunnel and Transport Mode   

Manual/Automatic Keying, Preshared Secrets, and Certificates   

IKE Phase 1 and 2: Main Mode and Aggressive Mode   

Resolving the IKE, PKI, SA, ISAKMP, and Oakley Confusion   

What Is Opportunistic Encryption (OE)?   

What Is NAT-Traversal (NAT-T)?   

DHCP Provisioning over IPSec Tunnel Mode   

IPSec Implementations   

Linux IPSec   




General Tunnel and Specific IPSec Caveats   

Tunnels and Firewalls   

Tunnels Do Not Like NAT   

Tunnels Cause MTU Issues   

Tunnels Add Protocol Overhead   

Unnumbered Links and Tunnel Routing   

Multicast Transit via Point-to-Point Tunnels   

Crypto Performance   

High Availability   

VPN Deployment and Scalability   

Advice About IPSec Lab Scenarios   

Lab 11-8: An IPSec with IKE (racoon/isakmpd) Scenario (Gateway-to-Gate

Tunnel Mode)   

Road-Warrior Scenarios (Road Warrior-to-OpenBSD/FreeBSD Gateway with IKE)   

Dynamic Routing Protocols over Point-to-Point Tunnels—Transpar

Infrastructure VPN   

IPSec Development and Evolution   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 12    Designing for High Availability   

Increasing Availability   

Withstanding a (D)DoS Attack   

Network HA Approaches   

Redundant Paths   

Standby Equipment   

Simple but Effective Approaches to Server HA   

DNS Shuffle Records and Round-Robin (DNS RR)   

Dynamic Routing Protocols   

Firewall Failover   

Clustering and Distributed Architectures   

Linux Virtual Server Project (LVSP)   

Connection Integrity Issues   

LVS—Virtual Services   

Linux Ultra Monkey   

IP Address Takeover with Heartbeat   

The Service Routing Redundancy Daemon (SRRD)   

IPv4/IPv6 Anycast   

A Few Words About Content Caches and Proxies   

Load Balancing   

Firewall Load-Balancing Approaches   

HighUpTime Project loadd Daemon   

Pure Load Balancer   

The PEN Load Balancer   

Super Sparrow   

Cisco Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)   

Cisco HA and Load-Balancing Approaches   

Cisco IOS Server Load Balancing (SLB) Feature   

Cisco Content Networking Devices and Software   




Comparison of the VRRP Implementations   




Recommended Reading   


Chapter 13    Policy Routing, Bandwidth Management, and QoS   

Policy Routing   

Policy Routing on BSD   

Linux iproute2 Policy Routing   

Cisco IOS Policy-Routing Example   

Traffic Shaping, Queuing, Reservation, and Scheduling   

Linux QoS    

Layer 3 QoS: IP ToS, Precedence, CoS, IntServ, and DiffServ Codepoints   

802.1P/Q Tagging/Priority—QoS at the Data-Link/MAC Sublayer   

MPLS Exp Field and MPLS Traffic Engineering   

DiffServ and RSVP/RSVP-TE Implementations for UNIX   

Cisco IOS QoS and Queuing Architectures   

UNIX Firewalling Engines and Queuing   

OpenBSD ALTQ+pf   

FreeBSD ipfilter+ALTQ   

FreeBSD IP Firewall(ipfw) + dummynet   

Linux Firewall Marking and iproute2 (ip/tc)   

Bell Labs’ Eclipse—An Operating System with QoS Support   


Recommended Reading   


Chapter 14    Multicast Architectures   

Multicast Deployments   

Multicast Addresses and Scope   

Administratively Scoped IP Multicast   

The Multicast Protocol Cocktail   

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and Cisco Group Managem

Protocol (CGMP)   

IGMPv1 Operation   

IGMPv2 Operation   

IGMPv3 Implementations   

Cisco IOS Multicast Router Configuration and IGMP/CGMP Operation   

Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)   

The Cisco IOS Multicast Routing Monitor (MRM)   

mrouted and DVMRP   

mrouted and the MBONE   

Lab 14-1: DVMRP via mrouted   

Native-Multicast Test Applications   

The ip and smcroute Multicast Utilities   

PIM Operation and Daemons   

Lab 14-2: Native Linux and FreeBSD Multicast (PIM-SMv2) in Combination w

Cisco PIM-SM-DM   

Lab 14-3: XORP PIM Operation   

Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF)   

Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)   

BGPv4 Multicast Extensions (Multiprotocol BGP, RFC 2858)   

Multicast Transport Layer Protocols   

Multicast Invitations and Session Announcements   

Multicast Security   


Recommended Reading   

Chapter 15    Network Address Translation   

The NAT Foundation—Basic/Traditional NAT   

NAT, PAT(NAPT), Masquerading, and Port Mapping/Multiplexing   

Static NAT and ARP/Routing Issues   

Redirection (Port Forwarding/Relaying or Transparent Proxying)   

UNIX NAT Approaches   

Lab 15-1: OpenBSD ipfilter   

Lab 15-2: FreeBSD ipfw+natd   

Lab 15-3: BSD Packet Filter (pf)   

Lab 15-4: Linux NAT (iptables)   

NAT-Hostile Protocols   

Future Developments: NAT-T, MPLS+NAT, Load Balancer   

NAT Redundancy—Stateful Failover   


Recommended Reading   

Appendix A    UNIX Kernel Configuration Files   

Appendix B    The FreeBSD Netgraph Facility   


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