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IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR: An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols

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  • Description
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  • Copyright 2015
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 1152
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  • ISBN-10: 0-13-384678-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-384678-2

An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols

Cisco’s authoritative single-source guide to IP routing protocols for enterprise and service provider environments

Service providers and large enterprises are converging on a common IP infrastructure that supports rapid deployment of high-value services. Demand is soaring for highly skilled IP network engineers who can implement and run these infrastructures. Now, one source combines reliable knowledge about contemporary IP routing protocols and expert hands-on guidance for using them with Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems.

After concisely reviewing the basics, three Cisco experts fully explain static routing, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP routing protocols. Next, they introduce advanced routing with policies and redistribution, sophisticated BGP-based traffic engineering, and multicast. They present comprehensive coverage of IPv6, from its multicast implementation to its completely revamped address structure. Finally, they discuss advanced high availability techniques, including fast routing convergence.

IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR presents each protocol conceptually, with intuitive illustrations, realistic configurations, and appropriate output. To help IOS users master IOS XE and IOS XR, differences in operating systems are explicitly
identified, and side-by-side feature command references are presented.

All content fully aligns with Learning@Cisco, providing efficient self-study for multiple Cisco Career Certifications, including CCNA®/CCNP®/CCIE® Service Provider, CCIE Routing & Switching, Cisco IOS XR Specialist Certification, and the routing components of several additional Cisco Certifications.

Brad Edgeworth, CCIE No. 31574 (R&S & SP) has been with Cisco since 2011 as Systems Engineer and Technical Leader. Formerly a network architect and consultant for various Fortune® 500 companies, his 18 years of IT experience includes extensive architectural and operational work in enterprise and service provider environments. He is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker presenting on IOS XR.

Aaron Foss, CCIE No. 18761 (R&S & SP), a High Touch Engineer with the Cisco Focused Technical Support (FTS) organization, works with large service providers to troubleshoot MPLS, QoS, and IP routing issues. He has more than 15 years of experience designing, deploying, and troubleshooting IP networks. 

Ramiro Garza Rios, CCIE No. 15469 (R&S, SP, and Security), Senior Network Consulting Engineer with Cisco Advanced Services, plans, designs, implements, and optimizes next-generation service provider networks. Before joining Cisco in 2005, he was Network Consulting and Presales Engineer for a Cisco Gold Partner in Mexico, where he planned and deployed both enterprise and service provider networks.

Foreword by Norm Dunn, Senior Product Manager, Learning@Cisco Global Product Management, Service Provider Portfolio

  • Understand how IOS®, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems compare
  • Master IPv4 concepts, addressing structure, and subnetting
  • Learn how routers and routing protocols work, and how connected networks and static routes behave from the router’s perspective
  • Work with EIGRP and distance vector routing
  • Deploy basic and advanced OSPF, including powerful techniques for organizing routing domains, path selection, and optimization
  • Compare IS-IS with OSPF, and implement advanced IS-IS multilevel routing, optimization, and path selection
  • Make the most of BGP and route manipulation, including IOS/IOS XE route maps and IOS XR’s highly scalable Route Policy Language
  • Use advanced policy-based route manipulation and filtering
  • Implement route redistribution: rules, potential problems, and solutions
  • Leverage BGP communities, summaries, and other router conservation techniques
  • Discover how IPv6 changes IP address and command structure
  • Establish highly efficient multicast routing in IPv4 and IPv6 environments
  • Systematically improve network availability and operational uptime through event driven detection and fast routing convergence

Table of Contents




Part I Network Fundamentals

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Operating Systems 1

IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR Software Architecture 1

    IOS 1

        Kernel and OS Scheduling 2

        Memory Management 2

        Software Packaging 2

    IOS XE 4

        Kernel and OS Scheduling 4

        Memory Management 4

    IOS XR 5

        Kernel and OS Scheduling 5

        Memory Management 5

    Software Packaging 6

    Debugging 8

CLI and Configuration 8

    IOS 9

        User Mode 9

        Privileged Mode 10

        Global Configuration Mode 10

        Configuration Archiving 11

        Configuration Replace 13

    IOS XR 14

        Viewing Changes in the SysDB 17

        Commit Label 18

        Commit Replace 19

        Failed Commits 20

        Configuration Rollback 21

        Commit Confirmed 22

        Multiple Commit Options 23

        Loading Files for Changes 24

        Hierarchical Configuration 24

        PWD 26

        Root 26

Summary 27

References in This Chapter 27

Chapter 2 IPv4 Addressing 29

IP Fundamentals 29

Understanding Binary 31

Address Classes 34

Subnet Masks and Subnetting 35

    Subnet Mask Purpose 36

    Calculating Usable IP Addresses 37

    Network Prefix Notation 38

    Subnetting 38

        Subnet Field 39

        Subnet Math 41

    Subnet Design 46

Classless Interdomain Routing 49

    Classful Versus Classless Routing 50

        Classful Routing 50

        Classless Routing 53

    Variable-Length Subnet Masks 55

    Summarization 56

Private IP Addressing 58

Special IP Addresses 59

IPv4 Address Configuration 60

Wildcard Subnet Masks 62

Summary 64

References in This Chapter 65

Chapter 3 How a Router Works 67

IP Routing 67

    Distance Vector Algorithms 69

    Enhanced Distance Vector Algorithm 70

    Link-State Algorithms 70

    Path Vector Algorithm 71

    Routing Table 72

        Prefix Length 73

        Administrative Distance 73

        Metrics 75

    Virtual Routing and Forwarding 76

IP Packet Switching 83

    Process Switching 84

    Cisco Express Forwarding 85

        Software CEF 87

        Hardware CEF 88

Planes of Operation 89

References in This Chapter 90

Part II Routing Protocols

Chapter 4 Static Routing 91

Connected Networks 91

Secondary Connected Networks 94

Static Routing Fundamentals 94

    Point-to-Point Interfaces 96

    Broadcast Interfaces 98

    Default Route 99

    Floating Static Routing 103

    Recursive Lookup 105

    Multihop Routing 108

        Single Recursive Lookup 108

        Multiple Recursive Lookups 109

    Problems with Static Route Recursion 112

Null Interface 116

Static VRF Routes 121

References in This Chapter 124

Chapter 5 EIGRP 125

EIGRP Fundamentals 125

EIGRP Neighbors 126

    Inter-Router Communication 126

    Forming EIGRP Neighbors 128

Classic EIGRP Autonomous System Configuration 131

    IOS network Statement 132

    IOS XR 134

    Passive Interfaces 134

    Sample Topology and Configuration 134

    Confirmation of Interfaces 136

    Verification of EIGRP Neighbor Adjacencies 139

    Display of Installed EIGRP Routes 140

Router ID 141

EIGRP Terminology 142

Topology Table 143

Path Metric Calculation 145

    Custom K Values 148

    Interface Delay Settings 149

    Load Balancing 151

    EIGRP Wide Metrics 153

Failure Detection and Timers 155

    Convergence 156

    Stuck in Active 159

Stub 160

    Design Considerations with EIGRP Stubs 164

Summarization 166

    Interface-Specific Summarization 166

    Summarization Metrics 171

    Advertising a Default Route 172

    Automatic Summarization 172

Authentication 174

    Enabling Authentication on the interface 174

    Key Chain Configuration 174

    WAN Considerations 177

        IP Bandwidth Percent 177

    Split Horizon 179

    Next-Hop Self 182

EIGRP Named Configuration 184

    Address Family Instance Configuration 185

    Address Family Interface Configuration 186

    Address Family Topology Configuration 188

Summary 189

References in This Chapter 189

Chapter 6 OSPF 191

OSPF Fundamentals 191

    Inter-Router Communication 193

    OSPF Hello Packets 194

    Router ID 195

    Neighbors 196

    Forming OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 197

    Basic OSPF Configuration 202

        IOS network Statement 202

        IOS Interface Specific 204

        IOS XR 205

    Passive Interfaces 205

    Sample Topology and Configuration 206

    Confirmation of Interfaces 208

    Verification of OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 209

    Verification of OSPF Routes 211

Designated Router and Backup Designated Router 212

    Designated Router Elections 214

    DR and BDR Placement 216

Failure Detection 219

    Hello Timer 219

    Dead Interval Timer 219

    Verifying OSPF Timers 220

    OSPF Fast Packet Hellos 220

OSPF Network Types 221

    Broadcast 221

    Non-Broadcast 222

    Point-to-Point Networks 224

    Point-to-Multipoint Networks 225

    Loopback Networks 229

    Review of OSPF Network Types 231

    OSPF Adjacency with Different OSPF Network Types 231

Link Costs 235

Authentication 236

    IOS Support for OSPF Authentication 236

    IOS XR Support for OSPF Authentication 236

Summary 239

References in This Chapter 240

Chapter 7 Advanced OSPF 241

Areas 241

    Area ID 245

    OSPF Route Types 246

        External OSPF Routes 247

Link-State Announcements 249

    LSA Age and Flooding 251

    LSA Types 251

        LSA Type 1: Router Link 252

        LSA Type 2: Network Link 257

        LSA Type 3: Summary Link 259

        LSA Type 5: External Routes 263

        LSA Type 4: ASBR Summary 265

        LSA Type 7: NSSA External Summary 268

        LSA Type Summary 270

OSPF Path Selection 270

    Intra-Area Routes 271

    Interarea Routes 272

    External Route Selection 272

    E1 and N1 External Routes 273

    E2 and N2 External Routes 273

    Equal Cost Multi-Path 274

Summarization of Routes 274

    Interarea Summarization 276

    External Summarization 280

    Default Route 283

OSPF Stubby Areas 286

    Stub Areas 286

    Totally Stubby Areas 289

    Not-So-Stubby Areas 292

    Totally NSSA Areas 295

Virtual Links 298

Discontiguous Network 301

Multi-Area Adjacency 304

Prefix Suppression 308

Summary 313

References in This Chapter 314

Chapter 8 IS-IS 315

IS-IS Fundamentals 315

    Areas 318

    OSI Addressing 319

        Inter-Domain Part 320

        Domain Specific Part 321

        NET Addressing 322

Inter-Router Communication 323

    IS Protocol Header 325

    TLVs 326

    IS PDU Addressing 326

    Hello Packets 327

    Link-State Packets 329

        LSP Lifetime 329

        LSP ID 330

        LSP Sequence 331

        Attribute Fields 331

        LSP Packet and TLVs 332

    IS-IS Neighbor 333

        Ethernet 333

        Point-to-Point 338

Basic IS-IS Configuration 340

    IOS 340

    IOS XR 340

    Sample Topology and Configuration 341

    Confirmation of IS-IS Interfaces 343

    Verification of IS-IS Neighbor Adjacencies 346

    Verification of IS-IS Routes 347

Designated Intermediate System 348

    DIS Elections 351

    DIS Placement 352

Point-to-Point Adjacency on Broadcast Media 353

Link State Packet Database 355

    Viewing the LSPDB 356

        Non-Pseudonode LSPs 357

        Pseudonode LSPs 358

    Building the Topology 359

    Viewing the Topology 360

    SPF Calculations 361

Passive Interfaces 362

Removal of Hello Padding 364

Failure Detection 366

    Hello Timer 366

    Hello Multiplier and Holding Timer 367

Authentication 367

    IS-IS Hello Authentication 367

    IS-IS LSP Authentication 368

Summary 371

References in This Chapter 372

Chapter 9 Advanced IS-IS 373

Advanced IS-IS Routing 373

    Route Leaking 377

    Backbone Continuity 380

    Loop Prevention 382

    Router-Specific IS-IS Levels 384

    Interface Specific IS-IS Levels 385

Path Selection 386

    Equal Cost Multi-Path 387

    Interface Metrics 387

    Overload Bit 394

Summarization 396

Default Routes 400

Prefix Suppression 401

Summary 405

References in This Chapter 406

Chapter 10 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 407

BGP Fundamentals 408

    Autonomous System Numbers 408

    Path Attributes 409

    Loop Prevention 409

    Address Families 410

Inter-Router Communication 410

    Open Messages 412

        Hold Time 412

        BGP Identifier 413

    Keepalive Messages 413

    Update Messages 413

    Notification Messages 414

    BGP Sessions 415

BGP Neighbor States 415

    Idle State 415

    Connect State 415

    Active State 416

    OpenSent State 416

    OpenConfirm State 417

    Established State 417

Basic BGP Configuration 418

    IOS 419

    IOS XR 420

    Verification of BGP Sessions 421

    Prefix Advertisement 425

    Receiving and Viewing Routes 427

iBGP 431

    iBGP Full-Mesh Requirement 432

    Peering via Loopback Addresses 433

eBGP 438

    eBGP and iBGP Topologies 442

    Next-Hop Manipulation 444

iBGP Scalability 446

    Route Reflectors 446

        Loop Prevention in Route Reflectors 451

        Out-of-Band Route Reflectors 453

    Confederations 453

Failure Detection 459

Security 459

    eBGP Multihop 459

    TTL Security 461

Summary 463

References in This Chapter 465

Part III Advanced Routing Techniques

Chapter 11 Route Maps and Route Policy 467

Access Control Lists 467

    Standard ACLs 468

    Extended ACLs 469

        IGP Network Selection 469

        BGP Network Selection 470

Prefix Matching 471

    Prefix Lists 473

    Prefix Sets 474

    Regular Expressions 475

     _ (Underscore) 477

     ^ (Caret) 478

    $ (Dollar Sign) 478

    [ ] (Brackets) 479

    - (Hyphen) 479

    [^] (Caret in Brackets) 480

    ( ) (Parentheses and | Pipe) 480

    . (Period) 481

    + (Plus Sign) 481

    ? (Question Mark) 481

    * (Asterisk) 482

    Looking Glass and Route Servers 483

AS_Path Access List 484

IOS XR AS_Path Selection Options 484

    is-local 485

    length 485

    unique-length 486

    passes-through 486

    neighbor-is 487

    originates-from 487

    AS Path Set 488

Route Maps 488

    Conditional Matching 490

        Multiple Conditional Match Conditions 491

        Complex Matching 491

    Optional Actions 492

    Continue 493

    Route Map Examples 494

Routing Policy Language 496

    Route Policy Structure 496

    Match Statements 497

    Attribute Modification 498

    Common Route Policy Structure 499

    Boolean Operators 504

        Negation 504

        Conjunction 504

        Disjunction 505

        Order of Processing 505

    Comparing Prefix Sets to Prefix Lists 506

    Parameterization 507

    Route Policy Nesting 510

    Original Value 511

    Editors 512

    RPL Examples 513

    RPL Verification 515

        Redistribution RPL Verification 516

        BGP RPL Verification 517

References in This Chapter 519

Chapter 12 Advanced Route Manipulation 521

Conditional Routing of Packets 521

    Policy-Based Routing Configuration 522

    Access-List-Based Forwarding Configuration 523

    Local PBR 525

Administrative Distance 526

    Modifying EIGRP AD 528

    Modifying OSPF AD 529

    Modifying IS-IS AD 531

    Modifying BGP AD 532

Route Filtering and Manipulation 534

    EIGRP Filtering by Prefix 534

    EIGRP Filtering by Hop Count 538

    EIGRP Offset Lists 538

    OSPF Filtering (Local) 541

    OSPF Filtering (Area) 543

    IS-IS Filtering (Local) 546

    BGP Filtering 546

    Clearing BGP Connections 549

Summary 550

References in This Chapter 550

Chapter 13 Route Redistribution 551

Redistribution Basics 553

    Redistribution Is Not Transitive 553

    Sequential Protocol Redistribution 555

    Routes Must Exist in the RIB 555

    Metrics 558

Protocol-Specific Configuration 558

    Source-Specific Behaviors 560

        Connected Networks 561

        IS-IS 561

       BGP 562

    Destination-Specific Behaviors 563

    EIGRP 563

    OSPF 568

    IS-IS 576

    BGP 580

Challenges with Redistribution 582

    Route Feedback 583

    Suboptimal Routing 584

    Invalid Routing Tables 589

    Routing Loops 590

    Methods to Avoid Routing Loops 593

        Prefix Filtering 593

        Tagging 595

        Increase Seed Metrics 598

        Administrative Distance 601

        Summarization on Redistributing Router 603

    Solutions to Redistribution Challenges 606

Summary 606

References in This Chapter 607

Part IV Advanced BGP

Chapter 14 Advanced BGP 609

BGP Communities 609

    Enabling BGP Community Support 610

    Well-Known Communities 611

        Internet 611

        No_Export 611

        No_Advertise 614

        No_Export_SubConfed 617

    Conditionally Matching BGP Communities 620

        Community Set 621

        Inline 622

        Setting Private BGP Communities 625

Route Summarization 628

    Aggregate Address 629

    Flexible Route Suppression 632

        Selective Prefix Suppression 632

        Leaking Suppressed Routes 634

    Atomic Aggregate 637

    Route Aggregation with AS_SET 639

    Route Aggregation with Selective Advertisement of AS_Set 641

Default Route Advertisement 643

Default Route Advertisement Per Neighbor 644

Conditional Route Advertisement 645

Outbound Route Filtering 647

Backdoor Networks 649

Maximum Autonomous System 652

Maximum Prefix 654

Remove Private Autonomous System 656

Allow Autonomous System 658

Local Autonomous System 660

Configuration Scalability 664

    IOS Peer Groups 664

    IOS Peer Templates 665

    IOS XR Configuration Templates 667

Summary 668

References in This Chapter 669

Chapter 15 BGP Best Path Selection 671

BGP Best Path Overview 672

    Weight 673

    Local Preference 679

    Locally Originated via Network or Aggregate Advertisement 684

    Accumulated Interior Gateway Protocol 686

    Shortest AS_Path 694

    Origin Type 700

    Multi-Exit Discriminator 704

        Missing MED behavior 709

        Always Compare Med 711

        BGP Deterministic MED 713

    eBGP over iBGP 714

    Lowest IGP Metric 718

    Prefer the Oldest EBGP Path 720

    Router ID 720

    Minimum Cluster List Length 721

    Lowest Neighbor Address 722


    eBGP and iBGP Multipath 723

    eiBGP Multipath 726

        R1 729

        R2 730

        XR3 730

        XR4 730

        XR5 731

    AS_Path Relax 731

Suboptimal Routing with Route Reflectors 733

    Additional Route Reflector 734

    Shadow Route Reflector 735

    Shadow Session Route Reflector 738

    BGP Add-Path 739

Summary 742

Further Reading 743

Part V Multicast

Chapter 16 IPv4 Multicast Routing 745

Multicast Fundamentals 745

Multicast Addressing 749

    Layer 2 Multicast Addresses 752

Internet Group Management Protocol 753

    IGMP Snooping 753    

    IGMPv2 756

    IGMPv3 759

Multicast Distribution Trees 759

    Source Trees 759

    Shared Trees 760

Protocol Independent Multicast 762

    PIM Dense Mode 765

    PIM Sparse Mode 768

        PIM Shared and Source Path Trees 768

        Shared Tree Join 769

        Source Registration 769

        PIM SPT Switchover 771

        Designated Routers 772

Rendezvous Points 772

    Static RP 773

    Auto-RP 773

        Candidate RPs 773

        RP Mapping Agents 774

    PIM Bootstrap Router 775

        Candidate RPs 775

Reverse Path Forwarding 776

PIM Forwarder 778

Basic Multicast Configuration 780

    Configure Rendezvous Points 783

        Static RP 784

        Auto-RP 785

        BSR 786

Multicast Verification 787

Bidirectional PIM 802

    Bidir-PIM Designated Forwarder 804

Summary 808

References in This Chapter 809

Chapter 17 Advanced IPv4 Multicast Routing 811

Interdomain Multicast Routing 811

    Multiprotocol BGP 812

    Multicast Source Discovery Protocol 817

        MSDP Source Active Message Types 818

        SA Messages 819

        Keepalive Messages 819    

        MSDP Peers 822

        MSDP Verification 828

        MSDP Stub Networks 831

Rendezvous Point Redundancy 833

    Auto-RP with Multiple RPs 835

        Auto-RP Group Filtering 836

    BSR with Multiple RPs 840

        BSR Group Filtering 843

        BSR RP Hash Algorithm 845

    Static RP with Multiple RPs 846

    Anycast RP 847

Source Specific Multicast 850

    SSM Mapping 857

        DNS SSM Mapping 857

        Static SSM Mapping 860

Multicast Security 862

    Auto-RP Scoping 862

    Multicast Boundaries 863

        Administratively Scoped Boundaries 863

        Auto-RP Multicast Boundaries 865

        BSR Multicast Boundaries 866

    Auto-RP Cisco-RP-Announce Message Filtering 867

    PIM-SM Source Registration Filtering 867

    PIM-SM Accept RP 868

    PIM Neighbor Control 869

    PIM Register Rate Limit 870

Multicast Traffic Engineering 871

    RPF Rules 871

    Static Mroutes 872

    MBGP 875

    Static IGMP Joins 882

Multicast Troubleshooting 886

    Mtrace 887

Summary 889

References in This Chapter 891

Part VI IPv6

Chapter 18 IPv6 Addressing 893

IPv6 Address Structure 893

    Text Representation Address Abbreviation 895

    IPv6 Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion 896

IPv6 Address Types 898

    Unicast 898

    Global Unicast 900

    Unique Local Unicast 904

    Link-Local Unicast 905

    Anycast 906

    Multicast 908

    Special IPv6 Addresses 911

Neighbor Discovery Protocol 912

    Router, Prefix, and Parameter Discovery. 913

    Redirect 919

    IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 920

        Extended Unique Identifier 920

        SLAAC Router Configuration 921

        RA Options for DNS 923

    Stateless DHCPv6 924

        IOS Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration 924

        IOS XR Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration 925

        Stateless DHCPv6 Verification 926

    Stateful DHCPv6, Relay Agent, and Relay Proxy 926

        IOS Relay Agent Configuration 927

        IOS Relay Agent Verification 928

        IOS XR Proxy Agent Configuration 928

        IOS XR Proxy Agent Verification 929

        IOS Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration 930

        IOS XR Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration 931

        Stateful DHCPv6 Server Verification 932

    IPv6 Address Resolution and Neighbor Unreachability Detection 934

    Duplicate Address Detection 937

Summary 938

References in This Chapter 939

Chapter 19 IPv6 Routing 941

Static Routing 941

    Static Route Configuration 942

    Static Route Reference Chart for IPv6 943

EIGRPv6 944

    EIGRPv6 Inter-Router Communication 944

    EIGRPv6 Configuration 945

        IOS EIGRPv6 Autonomous System Configuration (Classic) 945

        IOS EIGRPv6 Hierarchical Configuration (Named Mode) 946

        IOS XR EIGRPv6 Configuration 946

        EIGRPv6 Verification 947

    Summarization 950

    Default Route 952

    Route Filtering 953

    EIGRP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 954

OSPFv3 956

    OSPFv3 Inter-Router Communication 957

    OSPFv3 Link-State Advertisement 958

    OSPFv3 LSA Flooding Scope 959

    OSPFv3 Configuration 960

        IOS OSPFv3 Configuration 960

        IOS XR OSPFv3 Configuration 961

        OSPFv3 Verification 962

    OSPFv3 Authentication 970

    OSPFv3 Multiple Instances 973

    OSPFv3 Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 975

Integrated IS-IS for IPv6 977

    IS-IS Inter-Router Communication 978

    IS-IS Type-Length-Value 978

    IS-IS Topology Modes 978

    IS-IS Configuration 979

        IOS Base Configuration 979

        IOS XR Base Configuration 980

        IOS Topology Mode Configuration 981

        IOS XR Topology Mode Configuration 981

        Verification 985

    IS-IS Configuration Reference Chart for IPv6 987

Multiprotocol BGP for IPv6 989

    Inter-Router Communication 989

    BGP Configuration 991

        IOS Base Configuration 991

        IOS XR Base Configuration 992

    BGP Verification 993

    IPv6 over IPv4 BGP Sessions 998

    BGP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 1001

IPv6 Route Redistribution 1002

Summary 1006

References in This Chapter 1006

Chapter 20 IPv6 Multicast Routing 1007

IPv6 Multicast Routing Overview 1007

    IPv6 Multicast Address Mapping into MAC Address 1009

    Enabling Multicast Routing 1010

    Multicast Listener Discovery 1010

    Protocol Independent Multicast 1015

    PIM Sparse Mode 1015

        Static RP 1017

        Bootstrap Router 1018

        Embedded RP 1021

    IPv6 Multicast Verification Commands 1024

    Reverse Path Forwarding 1030

    Multicast Boundary Scope 1032

    PIM Source Specific Multicast 1033

Summary 1034

References in This Chapter 1035

Index 1037

Part VII High Availability

Chapter 21 High Availability Online


Appendix A Decimal to Hex to Binary Values Online

Appendix B BGP Attributes Online



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This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


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Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive:

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020