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IPv6 for Enterprise Networks

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  • Copyright 2011
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-273198-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-273198-0

IPv6 for Enterprise Networks

The practical guide to deploying IPv6 in campus,
WAN/branch, data center, and virtualized environments

Shannon McFarland, CCIE® No. 5245

Muninder Sambi, CCIE No. 13915

Nikhil Sharma, CCIE No. 21273

Sanjay Hooda, CCIE No. 11737

IPv6 for Enterprise Networks brings together all the information you need to successfully deploy IPv6 in any campus, WAN/branch, data center, or virtualized environment. Four leading Cisco IPv6 experts present a practical approach to organizing and executing your large-scale IPv6 implementation. They show how IPv6 affects existing network designs, describe common IPv4/IPv6 coexistence mechanisms, guide you in planning, and present validated configuration examples for building labs, pilots, and production networks.

The authors first review some of the drivers behind the acceleration of IPv6 deployment in the enterprise. Next, they introduce powerful new IPv6 services for routing, QoS, multicast, and management, comparing them with familiar IPv4 features and behavior. Finally, they translate IPv6 concepts into usable configurations. Up-to-date and practical, IPv6 for Enterprise Networks is an indispensable resource for every network engineer, architect, manager, and consultant who must evaluate, plan, migrate to, or manage IPv6 networks.

Shannon McFarland, CCIE No. 5245, is a Corporate Consulting Engineer for Cisco serving as a technical consultant for enterprise IPv6 deployment and data center design with a focus on application deployment and virtual desktop infrastructure. For more than 16 years, he has worked on large-scale enterprise campus, WAN/branch, and data center network design and optimization. For more than a decade, he has spoken at IPv6 events worldwide, including Cisco Live.

Muninder Sambi, CCIE No. 13915, is a Product Line Manager for Cisco Catalyst 4500/4900 series platform, is a core member of the Cisco IPv6 development council, and a key participant in IETF’s IPv6 areas of focus.

Nikhil Sharma, CCIE No. 21273, is a Technical Marketing Engineer at Cisco Systems where he is responsible for defining new features for both hardware and software for the Catalyst 4500 product line.

Sanjay Hooda, CCIE No. 11737, a Technical Leader at Cisco, works with embedded systems, and helps to define new product architectures. His current areas of focus include high availability and messaging in large-scale distributed switching systems.

n    Identify how IPv6 affects enterprises

n    Understand IPv6 services and the IPv6 features that make them possible

n    Review the most common tranisition mechanisms including dual-stack (IPv4/IPv6) networks, IPv6 over IPv4 tunnels, and IPv6 over MPLS

n    Create IPv6 network designs that reflect proven principles of modularity, hierarchy, and resiliency

n    Select the best implementation options for your organization

n    Build IPv6 lab environments

n    Configure IPv6 step-by-step in campus, WAN/branch, and data center networks

n    Integrate production-quality IPv6 services into IPv4 networks

n    Implement virtualized IPv6 networks

n    Deploy IPv6 for remote access

n    Manage IPv6 networks efficiently and cost-effectively

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Table of Contents

Introduction xix

Chapter 1 Market Drivers for IPv6 Adoption 1

IPv4 Address Exhaustion and the Workaround Options 2

IPv6 Market Drivers 3

    IPv4 Address Considerations 4

    Government IT Strategy 5

    Infrastructure Evolution 5

    Operating System Support 6

    Summary of Benefits of IPv6 6

Commonly Asked Questions About IPv6 6

    Does My Enterprise Need IPv6 for Business Growth? 6

    Will IPv6 Completely Replace IPv4? 9

    Is IPv6 More Complicated and Difficult to Manage and Deploy Compared

        to IPv4? 9

    Does IPv6 continue to allow my enterprise network to be multihomed to

        several service providers? 10

    Is quality of service better with IPv6? 10

    Is IPv6 automatically more secure than IPv4? 10

    Does the lack of NAT support in IPv6 reduce security? 10

IPv6 in the IETF 11

Enterprise IPv6 Deployment Status 12

Summary 15

Additional References 15

Chapter 2 Hierarchical Network Design 17

Network Design Principles 18

    Modularity 19

    Hierarchy 21

    Resiliency 24

Enterprise Core Network Design 24

Enterprise Campus Network Design 25

    Distribution Layer 25

        Layer 2 Access Design 25

        Routed Access Design 27

        Virtual Switching System Distribution Block 28

        Comparing Distribution Block Designs 28

    Access Layer 29

Enterprise Network Services Design 29

Enterprise Data Center Network Design 31

    Aggregation Layer 31

    Access Layer 32

    Data Center Storage Network Design 33

        Collapsed Core Topology 35

        Core Edge Topology 35

Enterprise Edge Network Design 37

    Headquarters Enterprise Edge Network Components 38

    Headquarters Enterprise Edge Network Design 39

    Branch Network Architecture 39

    Branch Edge Router Functionality 41

    Typical Branch Network Design 42

Summary 43

Additional References 43

Chapter 3 Common IPv6 Coexistence Mechanisms 45

Native IPv6 47

Transition Mechanisms 48

    Dual-Stack 48

    IPv6-over-IPv4 Tunnels 49

        Manually Configured Tunnel 51

        IPv6-over-IPv4 GRE Tunnel 53

        Tunnel Broker 54

        6to4 Tunnel 55

        Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP) 57

    IPv6 over MPLS 58

        IPv6 over Circuit Transport over MPLS 58

        IPv6 Using IPv4 Tunnels on Customer Edge (CE) Routers 60

        IPv6 MPLS with IPv4-Based Core (6PE/6VPE) 60

Protocol Translation/Proxy Mechanisms 62

    NAT-PT 63

    NAT64 64

Summary 64

Additional References 65

Chapter 4 Network Services 67

Multicast 67

    IPv6 Multicast Addressing 69

    Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6 71

    Multicast Routing: Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) 72

        PIM Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) 73

        PIM Source Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM) 74

        Bidirectional PIM (PIM-Bidir) 76

Quality of Service (QoS) 76

    Differences Between IPv6 and IPv4 QoS 76

    IPv6 Extension Headers 78

    IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence 79

IPv6 Routing 80

    OSPFv3 80

    EIGRPv6 83

    IS-IS 85

        Single Topology 86

        Multitopology 86

        Configuring IS-ISv6 86

    BGP 87

        Multiprotocol BGP for IPv6 88

Summary 89

Additional References 89

Chapter 5 Planning an IPv6 Deployment 91

Determining Where to Begin 91

    Benefit Analysis 92

    Cost Analysis 93

    Risks 94

    Business Case 94

    Transition Team 95

    Training 96

Planning a Pilot 96

    Assessment 96

    Design 97

        IPv6 Addressing Plan 97

    Transition Mechanisms 98

    Network Services 98

    Security 98

    New Features in IPv6 99

    Scalability and Reliability 99

    Service Level Agreements 99

    Lessons Learned and Implementation 99

    Client/Server IPv6 Migration Scenarios 100

        IPv6 Core Deployment: “Start at the Core” 101

        Localized IPv6 Server-Side Deployment 102

        Client-Side Deployment 102

        Client/Server Deployment: Dual-Stack Configuration 103

Planning Address Allocation 104

Summary 104

Additional References 105

Chapter 6 Deploying IPv6 in Campus Networks 107

Campus Deployment Models Overview 107

    Dual-Stack Model 108

        Benefits and Drawbacks of the DSM 108

        DSM Topology 109

        DSM-Tested Components 109

    Hybrid Model 109

        Benefits and Drawbacks of the HM 114

        HM Topology 115

        HM-Tested Components 115

    Service Block Model 115

        Benefits and Drawbacks of the SBM 116

        SBM Topology 117

        SBM-Tested Components 119

General Campus IPv6 Deployment Considerations 119

    Addressing 119

    Physical Connectivity 120

    VLANs 121

    Routing 121

    High Availability 122

    QoS 123

    Security 125

        Making Reconnaissance More Difficult Through Complex Address

            Assignment 126

        Controlling Management Access to the Campus Switches 126

        IPv6 Traffic Policing 128

        Using Control Plane Policing (CoPP) 129

        Controlling Ingress Traffic from the Access Layer 130

        First-Hop Security 130

        Blocking the Use of Microsoft Teredo 131

    Multicast 131

    Network Management 132

    Address Management 132

    Scalability and Performance 135

        Scalability and Performance Considerations for the DSM 135

        Scalability and Performance Considerations for the HM 136

        Scalability and Performance Considerations for the SBM 137

Implementing the Dual-Stack Model 137

    Network Topology 138

    Physical/VLAN Configuration 140

    Routing Configuration 143

    First-Hop Redundancy Configuration 145

    QoS Configuration 147

    Multicast Configuration 149

    Routed Access Configuration 151

    Cisco Virtual Switching System with IPv6 155

        VSS Configuration 157

        VSS Physical Interface IPv6 Configuration 160

Implementing the Hybrid Model 161

    Network Topology 161

    Physical Configuration 162

    Tunnel Configuration 163

    QoS Configuration 171

    Infrastructure Security Configuration 173

Implementing the Service Block Model 174

    Network Topology 174

    Physical Configuration 176

    Tunnel Configuration 178

    QoS Configuration 180

Summary 181

Additional References 182

Chapter 7 Deploying Virtualized IPv6 Networks 185

Virtualization Overview 186

    Virtualization Benefits 186

    Virtualization Categories 186

Network Virtualization 188

    Switch Virtualization 188

    Network Segmentation 188

        Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF-Lite) 189

        Transporting IPv6 Across the MPLS Backbone 193

        Virtual Private LAN Services 211

    Network Services Virtualization 212

        Virtualized Firewall 213

        Cisco Adaptive Security Appliance (ASA)

        Virtualization Architecture 213

        Understanding Virtual Contexts on the Cisco ASA 214

        Configuring Multiple Contexts on the Cisco ASA 215

        Configuring IPv6 Access Lists 219

Desktop Virtualization 220

    IPv6 and Desktop Virtualization 221

    Desktop Virtualization Example: Oracle Sun Ray 222

Server Virtualization 223

Summary 223

Additional References 224

Chapter 8 Deploying IPv6 in WAN/Branch Networks 225

WAN/Branch Deployment Overview 226

    Single-Tier Profile 226

    Dual-Tier Profile 227

        Redundancy 228

        Scalability 228

        WAN Transport 228

    Multitier Profile 228

General WAN/Branch IPv6 Deployment Considerations 229

    Addressing 230

    Physical Connectivity 230

    VLANs 231

    Routing 232

    High Availability 232

    QoS 233

    Security 233

    Multicast 236

    Management 236

    Scalability and Performance 238

WAN/Branch Implementation Example 238

    Tested Components 239

    Network Topology 240

        WAN Connectivity 240

        Branch LAN Connectivity 241

        Firewall Connectivity 241

        Head-End Configuration 242

        Branch WAN Access Router Configuration 245

        Branch Firewall Configuration 247

        EtherSwitch Module Configuration 250

        Branch LAN Router Configuration 252

WAN/Branch Deployment over Native IPv6 254

Summary 258

Additional References 258

Chapter 9 Deploying IPv6 in the Data Center 261

Designing and Implementing a Dual-Stack Data Center 262

    Data Center Access Layer 264

        Configuring Access Layer Devices for IPv6 265

        NIC-Teaming Considerations 267

Data Center Aggregation Layer 269

        Bypassing IPv4-Only Services at the Aggregation Layer 269

        Deploying an IPv6-Only Server Farm 271

        Supporting IPv4-Only Servers in a Dual-Stack Network 271

        Deploying IPv6-Enabled Services at the Aggregation Layer 272

    Data Center Core Layer 279

Implementing IPv6 in a Virtualized Data Center 279

Implementing IPv6 for the SAN 281

    FCIP 281

    iSCSI 284

    Cisco MDS Management 285

Designing IPv6 Data Center Interconnect 286

    Design Considerations: Dark Fibre, MPLS, and IP 287

    DCI Services and Solutions 288

Summary 289

Additional References 289

Chapter 10 Deploying IPv6 for Remote Access VPN 291

Remote Access for IPv6 Using Cisco AnyConnect 292

Remote Access for IPv6 Using Cisco VPN Client 297

Summary 301

Additional References 301

Chapter 11 Managing IPv6 Networks 303

Network Management Framework: FCAPS 304

    Fault Management 305

    Configuration Management 305

    Accounting Management 306

    Performance Management 306

    Security Management 306

IPv6 Network Management Applications 307

IPv6 Network Instrumentation 308

    Network Device Management Using SNMP MIBs 308

        Relevance of IPv6 MIBs 311

    IPv6 Application Visibility and Monitoring 312

        Flexible NetFlow 312

        NetFlow Versions 313

        NetFlow version 9 (Flexible NetFlow [FnF]) 314

        IPFIX 320

        IP SLA for IPv6 322

        Automation Using Flexible Programming with

        Embedded Event Manager 328

IPv6 Network Management 330

    Monitoring and Reporting 331

        SNMP over IPv6 331

        Syslog over IPv6 332

        ICMPv6 332

    Network Services 333

        TFTP 333

        NTP 333

    Access Control and Operations 334

        Telnet 334

        SSH 335

        HTTP 336

IPv6 Traffic-Monitoring Tools 337

    SPAN, RSPAN, and ERSPAN 337

        Configuring SPAN Types 338

        Mini Protocol Analyzer 339

    VLAN Access Control List (VACL) Capture 340

Summary 341

Additional References 342

Chapter 12 Walk Before Running: Building an IPv6 Lab and Starting a Pilot 343

Sample Lab Topology 344

Sample Lab Addressing 347

Configuring the Networking Devices 348

Operating System, Application, and Management Deployment 348

Moving to a Pilot 359

Summary 360

Additional References 360

Index 361



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