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Switching, Routing, and Wireless Essentials Companion Guide (CCNAv7)

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  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2021
  • Dimensions: 8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-672936-3
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-672936-5

Switching, Routing, and Wireless Essentials Companion Guide (CCNAv7) is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the Switching, Routing, and Wireless Essentials course and organize your time.
The books features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

  • Chapter Objectives Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Key Terms Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.
  • Glossary Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.
  • Summary of Activities and Labs Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.
  • Check Your Understanding Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.
  • How To Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.
  • Interactive Activities Reinforce your understanding of topics with dozens of exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.
  • Packet Tracer Activities Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters and provided in the accompanying Labs & Study Guide book.
  • Videos Watch the videos embedded within the online course.
  • Hands-on Labs Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Labs & Study Guide.
Part of the Cisco Networking Academy Series from Cisco Press, books in this series support and complement the Cisco Networking Academy curriculum.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxvii
Chapter 1 Basic Device Configuration 1
Objectives 1
Key Terms 1
Introduction (1.0) 2
Configure a Switch with Initial Settings (1.1) 2
    Switch Boot Sequence (1.1.1) 2
    The boot system Command (1.1.2) 3
    Switch LED Indicators (1.1.3) 3
    Recovering from a System Crash (1.1.4) 6
    Switch Management Access (1.1.5) 8
    Switch SVI Configuration Example (1.1.6) 8
Configure Switch Ports (1.2) 11
    Duplex Communication (1.2.1) 11
    Configure Switch Ports at the Physical Layer (1.2.2) 12
    Auto-MDIX (1.2.3) 13
    Switch Verification Commands (1.2.4) 14
    Verify Switch Port Configuration (1.2.5) 14
    Network Access Layer Issues (1.2.6) 15
    Interface Input and Output Errors (1.2.7) 17
    Troubleshooting Network Access Layer Issues (1.2.8) 18
Secure Remote Access (1.3) 20
    Telnet Operation (1.3.1) 20
    SSH Operation (1.3.2) 20
    Verify the Switch Supports SSH (1.3.3) 22
    Configure SSH (1.3.4) 22
    Verify SSH Is Operational (1.3.5) 24
Basic Router Configuration (1.4) 25
    Configure Basic Router Settings (1.4.1) 26
    Dual Stack Topology (1.4.3) 27
    Configure Router Interfaces (1.4.4) 27
    IPv4 Loopback Interfaces (1.4.6) 28
Verify Directly Connected Networks (1.5) 29
    Interface Verification Commands (1.5.1) 30
    Verify Interface Status (1.5.2) 30
    Verify IPv6 Link Local and Multicast Addresses (1.5.3) 31
    Verify Interface Configuration (1.5.4) 32
    Verify Routes (1.5.5) 32
    Filter Show Command Output (1.5.6) 34
        The section Filter 34
        The include Filter 34
        The exclude Filter 35
        The begin Filter 35
    Command History Feature (1.5.8) 36
Summary (1.6) 38
    Configure a Switch with Initial Settings 38
    Configure Switch Ports 38
    Secure Remote Access 38
    Basic Router Configuration 39
    Verify Directly Connected Networks 39
Practice 40
Check Your Understanding Questions 41
Chapter 2 Switching Concepts 45
Objectives 45
Key Terms 45
Introduction (2.0) 46
Frame Forwarding (2.1) 46
    Switching in Networking (2.1.1) 46
    The Switch MAC Address Table (2.1.2) 47
    The Switch Learn and Forward Method (2.1.3) 48
    Switching Forwarding Methods (2.1.5) 48
    Store-and-Forward Switching (2.1.6) 49
    Cut-Through Switching (2.1.7) 49
Collision and Broadcast Domains (2.2) 51
    Collision Domains (2.2.1) 51
    Broadcast Domains (2.2.2) 52
    Alleviate Network Congestion (2.2.3) 53
Summary (2.3) 55
    Frame Forwarding 55
    Switching Domains 55
Check Your Understanding Questions 56
Chapter 3 VLANs 59
Objectives 59
Key Terms 59
Introduction (3.0) 60
Overview of VLANs (3.1) 60
    VLAN Definitions (3.1.1) 60
    Benefits of a VLAN Design (3.1.2) 61
    Types of VLANs (3.1.3) 63
        Default VLAN 63
        Data VLAN 64
        Native VLAN 64
        Management VLAN 64
        Voice VLAN 65
VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment (3.2) 66
    Defining VLAN Trunks (3.2.1) 66
    Network Without VLANs (3.2.2) 67
    Network with VLANs (3.2.3) 68
    VLAN Identification with a Tag (3.2.4) 69
        VLAN Tag Field Details 69
    Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging (3.2.5) 70
        Tagged Frames on the Native VLAN 70
        Untagged Frames on the Native VLAN 70
    Voice VLAN Tagging (3.2.6) 71
    Voice VLAN Verification Example (3.2.7) 72
VLAN Configuration (3.3) 73
    VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (3.3.1) 73
        Normal Range VLANs 74
        Extended Range VLANs 74
    VLAN Creation Commands (3.3.2) 75
    VLAN Creation Example (3.3.3) 75
    VLAN Port Assignment Commands (3.3.4) 76
    VLAN Port Assignment Example (3.3.5) 77
    Data and Voice VLANs (3.3.6) 78
    Data and Voice VLAN Example (3.3.7) 78
    Verify VLAN Information (3.3.8) 79
    Change VLAN Port Membership (3.3.9) 81
    Delete VLANs (3.3.10) 82
VLAN Trunks (3.4) 83
    Trunk Configuration Commands (3.4.1) 83
    Trunk Configuration Example (3.4.2) 83
    Verify Trunk Configuration (3.4.3) 85
    Reset the Trunk to the Default State (3.4.4) 86
Dynamic Trunking Protocol (3.5) 87
    Introduction to DTP (3.5.1) 88
    Negotiated Interface Modes (3.5.2) 89
    Results of a DTP Configuration (3.5.3) 89
    Verify DTP Mode (3.5.4) 90
Summary (3.6) 92
    Overview of VLANs 92
    VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment 92
    VLAN Configuration 92
    VLAN Trunks 93
    Dynamic Trunking Protocol 93
    Practice 93
Check Your Understanding Questions 94
Chapter 4 Inter-VLAN Routing 97
Objectives 97
Key Terms 97
Introduction (4.0) 98
Inter-VLAN Routing Operation (4.1) 98
    What Is Inter-VLAN Routing? (4.1.1) 98
    Legacy Inter-VLAN Routing (4.1.2) 98
    Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (4.1.3) 100
    Inter-VLAN Routing on a Layer 3 Switch (4.1.4) 102
Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing (4.2) 103
    Router-on-a-Stick Scenario (4.2.1) 103
    S1 VLAN and Trunking Configuration (4.2.2) 105
    S2 VLAN and Trunking Configuration (4.2.3) 106
    R1 Subinterface Configuration (4.2.4) 107
    Verify Connectivity Between PC1 and PC2 (4.2.5) 108
    Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing Verification (4.2.6) 110
Inter-VLAN Routing using Layer 3 Switches (4.3) 112
    Layer 3 Switch Inter-VLAN Routing (4.3.1) 112
    Layer 3 Switch Scenario (4.3.2) 113
    Layer 3 Switch Configuration (4.3.3) 114
    Layer 3 Switch Inter-VLAN Routing Verification (4.3.4) 115
    Routing on a Layer 3 Switch (4.3.5) 116
    Routing Scenario on a Layer 3 Switch (4.3.6) 116
    Routing Configuration on a Layer 3 Switch (4.3.7) 117
Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing (4.4) 119
    Common Inter-VLAN Issues (4.4.1) 119
    Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing Scenario (4.4.2) 120
    Missing VLANs (4.4.3) 121
    Switch Trunk Port Issues (4.4.4) 124
    Switch Access Port Issues (4.4.5) 125
    Router Configuration Issues (4.4.6) 127
Summary (4.5) 130
    Inter-VLAN Routing Operation 130
    Router-on-a-Stick Inter-VLAN Routing 130
    Inter-VLAN Routing Using Layer 3 Switches 130
    Troubleshoot Inter-VLAN Routing 131
Practice 132
Check Your Understanding Questions 132
Chapter 5 STP Concepts 137
Objectives 137
Key Terms 137
Introduction (5.0) 139
Purpose of STP (5.1) 139
    Redundancy in Layer 2 Switched Networks (5.1.1) 139
    Spanning Tree Protocol (5.1.2) 140
    STP Recalculation (5.1.3) 141
    Issues with Redundant Switch Links (5.1.4) 141
    Layer 2 Loops (5.1.5) 142
    Broadcast Storm (5.1.6) 143
    The Spanning Tree Algorithm (5.1.7) 145
STP Operations (5.2) 148
    Steps to a Loop-Free Topology (5.2.1) 148
        Bridge Priority 149
        Extended System ID 149
        MAC address 150
    1. Elect the Root Bridge (5.2.2) 150
    Impact of Default BIDs (5.2.3) 151
    Determine the Root Path Cost (5.2.4) 152
    2. Elect the Root Ports (5.2.5) 152
    3. Elect Designated Ports (5.2.6) 153
    4. Elect Alternate (Blocked) Ports (5.2.7) 156
    Elect a Root Port from Multiple Equal-Cost Paths (5.2.8) 156
        1. Lowest Sender BID 157
        2. Lowest Sender Port Priority 157
        3. Lowest Sender Port ID 158
    STP Timers and Port States (5.2.9) 158
    Operational Details of Each Port State (5.2.10) 160
    Per-VLAN Spanning Tree (5.2.11) 160
Evolution of STP (5.3) 161
    Different Versions of STP (5.3.1) 161
    RSTP Concepts (5.3.2) 162
    RSTP Port States and Port Roles (5.3.3) 163
        STP and RSTP Port States 163
    PortFast and BPDU Guard (5.3.4) 165
    Alternatives to STP (5.3.5) 166
Summary (5.4) 169
    Purpose of STP 169
        STP Operations 169
        Evolution of STP 170
Practice 171
Check Your Understanding Questions 171
Chapter 6 EtherChannel 175
Objectives 175
Key Terms 175
Introduction (6.0) 176
EtherChannel Operation (6.1) 176
    Link Aggregation (6.1.1) 176
    EtherChannel (6.1.2) 177
    Advantages of EtherChannel (6.1.3) 177
    Implementation Restrictions (6.1.4) 178
    AutoNegotiation Protocols (6.1.5) 179
    PAgP Operation (6.1.6) 180
    PAgP Mode Settings Example (6.1.7) 181
    LACP Operation (6.1.8) 181
    LACP Mode Settings Example (6.1.9) 182
Configure EtherChannel (6.2) 183
    Configuration Guidelines (6.2.1) 183
    LACP Configuration Example (6.2.2) 185
Verify and Troubleshoot EtherChannel (6.3) 186
    Verify EtherChannel (6.3.1) 186
    Common Issues with EtherChannel Configurations (6.3.2) 188
    Troubleshoot EtherChannel Example (6.3.3) 189
Summary (6.4) 193
    EtherChannel Operation 193
    Configure EtherChannel 193
    Verify and Troubleshoot EtherChannel 194
Practice 195
Check Your Understanding Questions 195
Chapter 7 DHCPv4 199
Objectives 199
Key Terms 199
Introduction (7.0) 200
DHCPv4 Concepts (7.1) 200
    DHCPv4 Server and Client (7.1.1) 200
    DHCPv4 Operation (7.1.2) 201
    Steps to Obtain a Lease (7.1.3) 201
    Steps to Renew a Lease (7.1.4) 203
Configure a Cisco IOS DHCPv4 Server (7.2) 204
    Cisco IOS DHCPv4 Server (7.2.1) 204
    Steps to Configure a Cisco IOS DHCPv4 Server (7.2.2) 205
    Configuration Example (7.2.3) 206
    DHCPv4 Verification Commands (7.2.4) 207
    Verify DHCPv4 is Operational (7.2.5) 207
        Verify the DHCPv4 Configuration 207
        Verify DHCPv4 Bindings 208
        Verify DHCPv4 Statistics 208
        Verify DHCPv4 Client Received IPv4 Addressing 209
    Disable the Cisco IOS DHCPv4 Server (7.2.7) 210
    DHCPv4 Relay (7.2.8) 210
        The ipconfig /release Command 211
        The ipconfig /renew Command 211
        The ip helper-address Command 212
        The show ip interface Command 212
        The ipconfig /all Command 213
    Other Service Broadcasts Relayed (7.2.9) 213
Configure a DHCPv4 Client (7.3) 214
    Cisco Router as a DHCPv4 Client (7.3.1) 214
    Configuration Example (7.3.2) 214
    Home Router as a DHCPv4 Client (7.3.3) 215
Summary (7.4) 216
    DHCPv4 Concepts 216
    Configure a Cisco IOS DHCPv4 Server 216
    Configure a DHCPv4 Client 217
Practice 218
Check Your Understanding Questions 218
Chapter 8 SLAAC and DHCPv6 223
Objectives 223
Key Terms 223
Introduction (8.0) 224
IPv6 GUA Assignment (8.1) 224
    IPv6 Host Configuration (8.1.1) 224
    IPv6 Host Link-Local Address (8.1.2) 224
    IPv6 GUA Assignment (8.1.3) 226
    Three RA Message Flags (8.1.4) 226
SLAAC (8.2) 228
    SLAAC Overview (8.2.1) 228
    Enabling SLAAC (8.2.2) 229
        Verify IPv6 Addresses 229
        Enable IPv6 Routing 230
        Verify SLAAC Is Enabled 230
    SLAAC Only Method (8.2.3) 231
    ICMPv6 RS Messages (8.2.4) 232
    Host Process to Generate Interface ID (8.2.5) 233
    Duplicate Address Detection (8.2.6) 234
DHCPv6 (8.3) 234
    DHCPv6 Operation Steps (8.3.1) 234
    Stateless DHCPv6 Operation (8.3.2) 236
    Enable Stateless DHCPv6 on an Interface (8.3.3) 237
    Stateful DHCPv6 Operation (8.3.4) 238
    Enable Stateful DHCPv6 on an Interface (8.3.5) 239
Configure DHCPv6 Server (8.4) 240
    DHCPv6 Router Roles (8.4.1) 240
    Configure a Stateless DHCPv6 Server (8.4.2) 240
    Configure a Stateless DHCPv6 Client (8.4.3) 243
    Configure a Stateful DHCPv6 Server (8.4.4) 245
    Configure a Stateful DHCPv6 Client (8.4.5) 248
    DHCPv6 Server Verification Commands (8.4.6) 250
    Configure a DHCPv6 Relay Agent (8.4.7) 252
    Verify the DHCPv6 Relay Agent (8.4.8) 252
Summary 255
    IPv6 GUA Assignment 255
    SLAAC 255
    DHCPv6 256
    Configure DHCPv6 Server 256
Practice 257
Check Your Understanding Questions 257
Chapter 9 FHRP Concepts 261
Objectives 261
Key Terms 261
Introduction (9.0) 262
First Hop Redundancy Protocols (9.1) 262
    Default Gateway Limitations (9.1.1) 262
    Router Redundancy (9.1.2) 264
    Steps for Router Failover (9.1.3) 265
    FHRP Options (9.1.4) 266
HSRP (9.2) 267
    HSRP Overview (9.2.1) 267
    HSRP Priority and Preemption (9.2.2) 268
        HSRP Priority 268
        HSRP Preemption 268
    HSRP States and Timers (9.2.3) 269
Summary (9.3) 271
    First Hop Redundancy Protocols 271
    HSRP 271
Practice 272
Check Your Understanding Questions 272
Chapter 10 LAN Security Concepts 275
Objectives 275
Key Terms 275
Introduction (10.0) 277
Endpoint Security (10.1) 277
    Network Attacks Today (10.1.1) 277
    Network Security Devices (10.1.2) 278
    Endpoint Protection (10.1.3) 278
    Cisco Email Security Appliance (10.1.4) 279
    Cisco Web Security Appliance (10.1.5) 280
Access Control (10.2) 281
    Authentication with a Local Password (10.2.1) 281
    AAA Components (10.2.2) 283
    Authentication (10.2.3) 283
        Local AAA Authentication 284
        Server-Based AAA Authentication 284
    Authorization (10.2.4) 285
    Accounting (10.2.5) 285
    802.1X (10.2.6) 286
Layer 2 Security Threats (10.3) 287
    Layer 2 Vulnerabilities (10.3.1) 287
    Switch Attack Categories (10.3.2) 288
    Switch Attack Mitigation Techniques (10.3.3) 289
MAC Address Table Attack (10.4) 290
    Switch Operation Review (10.4.1) 290
    MAC Address Table Flooding (10.4.2) 290
    MAC Address Table Attack Mitigation (10.4.3) 291
LAN Attacks (10.5) 292
    VLAN Hopping Attacks (10.5.2) 293
    VLAN Double-Tagging Attack (10.5.3) 293
        VLAN Attack Mitigation 295
    DHCP Messages (10.5.4) 296
    DHCP Attacks (10.5.5) 296
        DHCP Starvation Attack 296
        DHCP Spoofing Attack 297
    ARP Attacks (10.5.7) 300
    Address Spoofing Attack (10.5.8) 303
    STP Attack (10.5.9) 303
    CDP Reconnaissance (10.5.10) 305
Summary (10.6) 307
Practice 308
Check Your Understanding Questions 309
Chapter 11 Switch Security Configuration 313
Objectives 313
Key Terms 313
Introduction (11.0) 314
Implement Port Security (11.1) 314
    Secure Unused Ports (11.1.1) 314
    Mitigate MAC Address Table Attacks (11.1.2) 315
    Enable Port Security (11.1.3) 316
    Limit and Learn MAC Addresses (11.1.4) 317
    Port Security Aging (11.1.5) 319
    Port Security Violation Modes (11.1.6) 321
    Ports in error-disabled State (11.1.7) 322
    Verify Port Security (11.1.8) 324
        Port Security for All Interfaces 325
        Port Security for a Specific Interface 325
        Verify Learned MAC Addresses 326
        Verify Secure MAC Addresses 326
Mitigate VLAN Attacks (11.2) 327
    VLAN Attacks Review (11.2.1) 327
    Steps to Mitigate VLAN Hopping Attacks (11.2.2) 327
Mitigate DHCP Attacks (11.3) 329
    DHCP Attack Review (11.3.1) 329
    DHCP Snooping (11.3.2) 329
    Steps to Implement DHCP Snooping (11.3.3) 330
    DHCP Snooping Configuration Example (11.3.4) 331
Mitigate ARP Attacks (11.4) 332
    Dynamic ARP Inspection (11.4.1) 333
    DAI Implementation Guidelines (11.4.2) 333
    DAI Configuration Example (11.4.3) 333
Mitigate STP Attacks (11.5) 335
    PortFast and BPDU Guard (11.5.1) 335
    Configure PortFast (11.5.2) 336
    Configure BPDU Guard (11.5.3) 338
Summary (11.6) 340
Practice 342
Check Your Understanding Questions 343
Chapter 12 WLAN Concepts 347
Objectives 347
Key Terms 347
Introduction (12.0) 349
Introduction to Wireless (12.1) 349
    Benefits of Wireless (12.1.1) 349
    Types of Wireless Networks (12.1.2) 349
    Wireless Technologies (12.1.3) 350
    802.11 Standards (12.1.4) 353
    Radio Frequencies (12.1.5) 354
    Wireless Standards Organizations (12.1.6) 355
WLAN Components (12.2) 356
    Wireless NICs (12.2.2) 356
    Wireless Home Router (12.2.3) 357
    Wireless Access Points (12.2.4) 358
    AP Categories (12.2.5) 358
        Autonomous APs 359
        Controller-Based APs 359
    Wireless Antennas (12.2.6) 360
WLAN Operation (12.3) 362
    802.11 Wireless Topology Modes (12.3.2) 362
    BSS and ESS (12.3.3) 364
        Basic Service Set 364
        Extended Service Set 365
    802.11 Frame Structure (12.3.4) 365
    CSMA/CA (12.3.5) 367
    Wireless Client and AP Association (12.3.6) 367
    Passive and Active Discover Mode (12.3.7) 368
        Passive Mode 368
        Active Mode 369
CAPWAP Operation (12.4) 370
    Introduction to CAPWAP (12.4.2) 370
    Split MAC Architecture (12.4.3) 371
        DTLS Encryption (12.4.4) 372
        FlexConnect APs (12.4.5) 372
Channel Management (12.5) 373
    Frequency Channel Saturation (12.5.1) 373
    Channel Selection (12.5.2) 375
Plan a WLAN Deployment (12.5.3) 377
WLAN Threats (12.6) 379
    Wireless Security Overview (12.6.2) 379
    DoS Attacks (12.6.3) 380
    Rogue Access Points (12.6.4) 381
    Man-in-the-Middle Attack (12.6.5) 381
Secure WLANs (12.7) 383
    SSID Cloaking and MAC Address Filtering (12.7.2) 383
        SSID Cloaking 383
        MAC Addresses Filtering 384
    802.11 Original Authentication Methods (12.7.3) 385
    Shared Key Authentication Methods (12.7.4) 385
    Authenticating a Home User (12.7.5) 386
    Encryption Methods (12.7.6) 387
    Authentication in the Enterprise (12.7.7) 388
    WPA3 (12.7.8) 389
        WPA3-Personal 389
        WPA3-Enterprise 390
        Open Networks 390
        IoT Onboarding 390
Summary (12.8) 391
Practice 392
Check Your Understanding Questions 392
Chapter 13 WLAN Configuration 397
Objectives 397
Key Terms 397
Introduction (13.0) 398
Remote Site WLAN Configuration (13.1) 398
    The Wireless Router (13.1.2) 398
    Log in to the Wireless Router (13.1.3) 399
    Basic Network Setup (13.1.4) 401
    Basic Wireless Setup (13.1.5) 404
    Configure a Wireless Mesh Network (13.1.6) 408
    NAT for IPv4 (13.1.7) 408
    Quality of Service (13.1.8) 410
    Port Forwarding (13.1.9) 410
Configure a Basic WLAN on the WLC (13.2) 412
    WLC Topology (13.2.2) 412
    Log in to the WLC (13.2.3) 414
    View AP Information (13.2.4) 415
    Advanced Settings (13.2.5) 416
    Configure a WLAN (13.2.6) 416
Configure a WPA2 Enterprise WLAN on the WLC (13.3) 421
    SNMP and RADIUS (13.3.2) 421
    Configure SNMP Server Information (13.3.3) 421
    Configure RADIUS Server Information (13.3.4) 423
    Topology with VLAN 5 Addressing (13.3.6) 424
    Configure a New Interface (13.3.7) 425
    Configure a DHCP Scope (13.3.9) 428
    Configure a WPA2 Enterprise WLAN (13.3.11) 430
Troubleshoot WLAN Issues (13.4) 433
    Troubleshooting Approaches (13.4.1) 433
    Wireless Client Not Connecting (13.4.2) 435
    Troubleshooting When the Network Is Slow (13.4.3) 436
    Updating Firmware (13.4.4) 438
Summary (13.5) 440
Practice 441
Check Your Understanding Questions 441
Chapter 14 Routing Concepts 445
Objectives 445
Key Terms 445
Introduction (14.0) 447
Path Determination (14.1) 447
    Two Functions of Router (14.1.1) 447
    Router Functions Example (14.1.2) 447
    Best Path Equals Longest Match (14.1.3) 448
    IPv4 Address Longest Match Example (14.1.4) 449
    IPv6 Address Longest Match Example (14.1.5) 449
    Build the Routing Table (14.1.6) 450
        Directly Connected Networks 450
        Remote Networks 450
        Default Route 451
Packet Forwarding (14.2) 451
    Packet Forwarding Decision Process (14.2.1) 451
        Forwards the Packet to a Device on a Directly Connected Network 452
        Forwards the Packet to a Next-Hop Router 453
        Drops the PacketNo Match in Routing Table 453
    End-to-End Packet Forwarding (14.2.2) 453
        PC1 Sends Packet to PC2 453
        R1 Forwards the Packet to PC2 454
        R2 Forwards the Packet to R3 455
        R3 Forwards the Packet to PC2 455
    Packet Forwarding Mechanisms (14.2.3) 455
        Process Switching 456
        Fast Switching 456
        Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) 458
Basic Router Configuration Review (14.3) 459
    Topology (14.3.1) 459
    Configuration Commands (14.3.2) 459
    Verification Commands (14.3.3) 461
    Filter Command Output (14.3.4) 466
IP Routing Table (14.4) 467
    Route Sources (14.4.1) 467
    Routing Table Principles (14.4.2) 469
    Routing Table Entries (14.4.3) 469
    Directly Connected Networks (14.4.4) 470
    Static Routes (14.4.5) 471
    Static Routes in the IP Routing Table (14.4.6) 472
    Dynamic Routing Protocols (14.4.7) 474
    Default Route (14.4.9) 475
    Structure of an IPv4 Routing Table (14.4.10) 477
    Structure of an IPv6 Routing Table (14.4.11) 478
    Administrative Distance (14.4.12) 479
Static and Dynamic Routing (14.5) 480
    Static or Dynamic? (14.5.1) 480
        Static Routes 481
        Dynamic Routing Protocols 481
    Dynamic Routing Evolution (14.5.2) 482
    Dynamic Routing Protocol Concepts (14.5.3) 483
    Best Path (14.5.4) 484
    Load Balancing (14.5.5) 485
Summary (14.6) 488
    Path Determination 488
    Packet Forwarding 488
    Basic Router Configuration Review 488
    IP Routing Table 489
    Static and Dynamic Routing 490
Practice 491
Check Your Understanding Questions 491
Chapter 15 IP Static Routing 495
Objectives 495
Key Terms 495
Introduction (15.0) 496
Static Routes (15.1) 496
    Types of Static Routes (15.1.1) 496
    Next-Hop Options (15.1.2) 497
    IPv4 Static Route Command (15.1.3) 497
    IPv6 Static Route Command (15.1.4) 498
    Dual-Stack Topology (15.1.5) 499
    IPv4 Starting Routing Tables (15.1.6) 499
    IPv6 Starting Routing Tables (15.1.7) 501
Configure IP Static Routes (15.2) 503
    IPv4 Next-Hop Static Route (15.2.1) 503
    IPv6 Next-Hop Static Route (15.2.2) 504
    IPv4 Directly Connected Static Route (15.2.3) 505
    IPv6 Directly Connected Static Route (15.2.4) 506
    IPv4 Fully Specified Static Route (15.2.5) 507
    IPv6 Fully Specified Static Route (15.2.6) 509
    Verify a Static Route (15.2.7) 510
        Display Only IPv4 Static Routes 511
        Display a Specific IPv4 Network 511
        Display the IPv4 Static Route Configuration 511
        Display Only IPv6 Static Routes 512
        Display a Specific IPv6 Network 512
        Display the IPv6 Static Route Configuration 512
Configure IP Default Static Routes (15.3) 513
    Default Static Route (15.3.1) 513
        IPv4 Default Static Route 513
        IPv6 Default Static Route 514
    Configure a Default Static Route (15.3.2) 514
    Verify a Default Static Route (15.3.3) 515
Configure Floating Static Routes (15.4) 517
    Floating Static Routes (15.4.1) 517
    Configure IPv4 and IPv6 Floating Static Routes (15.4.2) 518
    Test the Floating Static Route (15.4.3) 520
Configure Static Host Routes (15.5) 521
    Host Routes (15.5.1) 521
    Automatically Installed Host Routes (15.5.2) 522
    Static Host Routes (15.5.3) 523
    Configure Static Host Routes (15.5.4) 523
    Verify Static Host Routes (15.5.5) 523
    Configure IPv6 Static Host Route with Link-Local
    Next-Hop (15.5.6) 524
Summary (15.6) 525
    Static Routes 525
    Configure IP Static Routes 525
    Configure IP Default Static Routes 525
    Configure Floating Static Routes 526
    Configure Static Host Routes 526
Practice 527
Check Your Understanding Questions 527
Chapter 16 Troubleshoot Static and Default Routes 531
Objectives 531
Introduction (16.0) 532
Packet Processing with Static Routes (16.1) 532
    Static Routes and Packet Forwarding (16.1.1) 532
Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration (16.2) 533
    Network Changes (16.2.1) 534
    Common Troubleshooting Commands (16.2.2) 534
    Solve a Connectivity Problem (16.2.3) 536
        Ping the Remote LAN 536
        Ping the Next-Hop Router 537
        Ping R3 LAN from S0/1/0 537
        Verify the R2 Routing Table 538
        Correct the R2 Static Route Configuration 538
        Verify New Static Route Is Installed 538
        Ping the Remote LAN Again 539
Summary (16.3) 540
    Packet Processing with Static Routes 540
    Troubleshoot IPv4 Static and Default Route Configuration 540
Practice 541
Check Your Understanding Questions 542
Appendix A Answers to the Check Your Understanding Questions 545
Glossary 561


9780136729358   TOC   6/4/2020




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