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802.11 Wireless Network Site Surveying and Installation


  • Sorry, this book is no longer in print.
Not for Sale
  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2005
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-164-8
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-164-7

The definitive guide to performing wireless network site surveys, selecting the right wireless equipment, and installing 802.11 wireless LANs

  • Prepare for a WLAN installation with this definitive guide
  • Perform a proper site survey to ensure the maximum performance of your 802.11 WLAN
  • Compare and choose the right WLAN technologies to match application and users needs
  • Install WLAN products properly taking the unique needs of the users and environment into account

Performing a wireless LAN (WLAN) site survey before installing a wireless network is the key to any successful WLAN deployment. Yet each location and company have unique needs that must be taken into account. 802.11 Wireless Network Site Surveying and Installation helps you understand the challenges associated with any site survey, including multipath mitigation, reflection, absorption, and radio wave interference, plus the added complexity of user and application demands. This book helps you identify obstacles to a successful deployment and guides your equipment decisions to ensure that your WLAN reaches its maximum potential. Use this complete guide to understand the following components of any thorough site survey:

  • The architecture of the access points, cable routes, and electrical needs
  • The proper site survey technique and usage of appropriate utilities
  • The structural and installation obstacles, including building construction, transmission coverage area, building contents, present cable configuration, area regulations, and building codes
  • The documentation that outlines the necessary parts and equipment, and diagrams exhibiting the proper placement of the equipment

802.11 Wireless Network Site Surveying and Installation begins with an introduction to WLAN architectures and definitions and then moves on to site survey methodologies, helping you assess and address your site's specific needs. The book delves into the installation process for WLAN equipment, including the rules and regulations to which WLANs must adhere, various obstacles that arise when installing WLAN equipment, and ways to connect WLAN products to the wired network.

802.11 Wireless Network Site Surveying and Installation is your complete guide to performing a WLAN site survey and successfully installing your 802.11 wireless network.

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press¿ which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Online Sample Chapter

Discovering Site-Specific Requirements for 802.11 Wireless Network Site Surveying and Installation

Downloadable Sample Chapter

Download - 2.5 MB -- Chapter 8: Discovering Site-Specific Requirements

Table of Contents



1. Defining a Wireless Network's Protocols and Components.

    The Evolution of Wireless Standards.

      The First Proprietary WLANs.

      Standards-Based WLAN Systems.

    Introducing 802.11.

      Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum.

      IEEE 802.11b Direct-Sequence Channels.

      Frequency Hopping.

    802.11 Working Groups  




    Additional Wireless Standards.



      Home RF.

      Ultra Wideband.

    Wi-Fi Alliance.

      Other Wi-Fi Certifications.

      Wi-Fi Capabilities Label.

    WLAN Components.

      Access Points.

      Client Devices.




2. Understanding RF Fundamentals.

    Understanding RF Components.



      Amplitude Modulation.

      Frequency Modulation.

      Phase Modulation.

      Quadrature Amplitude Modulation.

      Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing.

    Modulation Methods for 802.11 Technologies.

    Signal Strength.

    Understanding RF Power Values.


      Power Ratings.



    Directional Properties.

      Omni-Directional Antennas.

      Directional Antennas.


    Antenna Examples.

      Patch Antenna.

      Panel Antenna.

      Yagi Antenna.

      Dish Antennas.




    Understanding RF Site Propagation.

    Frequency Versus Coverage.

    Material Absorption, Reflection, and Refraction.


    Signal Strength, Noise, and Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

    Coverage Versus Bandwidth.

    Modulation Versus Coverage.

    Outdoor RF Issues.

      Propagation and Losses.

      Earth Bulge and Fresnel Zone.


3. Regulating the Use of 802.11 WLANs.

    Early Spread-Spectrum Regulations.

    RF Regulatory Domains.

    WLAN Frequencies of Operation.

      900-MHz Frequency Band.

      2.4-GHz Frequency Band.

      5-GHz Frequency Band.

    Dynamic Frequency Selection and Transmitter Power Control with 801.11h.

    Regulatory Channel Selections.

    North American Domain Channel Scheme.

      2.4 GHz (NA).

      5 GHz (NA).

    ETSI Domain Channel Scheme.

      2.4 GHz (ETSI).

      5 GHz (ETSI).

    Japan Channel Scheme.

      2.4 GHz (Japan).

      5 GHz (Japan).

    Other Regulatory Domain Frequency Limits.

    Maximum Transmitter Power Levels.


      North American Regulatory Power Levels.

      2.4-GHz Power Levels for the North American Regulatory Domain.

      5-GHz Power Levels (NA).

    ETSI Regulatory Power Levels.

      2.4-GHz Power Levels (ETSI).

      5-GHz Power Levels (ETSI).

    Japan Domain Power Levels.

      2.4 GHz (Japan).

      5 GHz (Japan).

    World Mode (802.11d).


    Antenna Connectors and Remote Antennas.

    Health and Safety.

    Plenum Locations.


    Recommended Reading.

4. WLAN Applications and Services.

    Typical WLAN Environments.

    Retail/Bar Coding.



    Enterprise Offices.

    Health Care



    Hotel, Conventions, and Hospitality.

    Public Hotspots.


    Defining the WLAN Requirements.

    Defining Your Technology Requirements.

    Selecting Necessary WLAN Services.


      Quality of Service.

      IP Subnet Roaming.


      Load Balancing.


    Building-to-Building Connectivity.


5. Selecting the WLAN Architecture and Hardware.

    Key Features of a WLAN.

      Software Upgrade Capabilities.

      Rogue AP Detection.

      Flexible and Secure Mobility.

      Assisted Survey and Installation Tools.

      Self-Healing Systems.

      Remote Debugging.

    Various WLAN Architectures.

      Distributed Intelligence.

      Centralized Intelligence.

      Core Device Architecture.

      Comparing Packet Flows of Distributed and Centralized Intelligence Systems.

      Edge Device Architecture.

      Switched Antenna Systems.

      Phased Array Antenna Technology.

      Phased Array Antenna Extends Range.

      Mesh Networking.

      Free-Space Optics (Laser).

    Selecting the Access Point.

      Single- or Dual-Radio Architecture.

      AP Radio Styles.

    Selecting the Client Products.



6. Preparing for a Site Survey.

    Pre-Site Survey Form Information.

      Customer Information.

      Site Survey Location.

      Current Network and Communications Information.

      WLAN Equipment Requirements.

      Site Information.

      Survey Personnel Requirements.

      Scope of Work.

      Coverage Map.

      Outdoor Bridge Links.

    User Input.

    Balancing Wants, Needs, and Capabilities.


7. Site Surveying Equipment.

    WLAN Equipment.

      Access Points.

      Client Devices.





      Physical Measuring Devices.

      RF Analyzers.

      Spectrum Analyzer.

      Portable Analyzer Tools.

      Two-Way Radios.

      Outdoor Tools.

      Battery Packs.

      Digital Camera.

      Mounting Hardware.

    Site Survey Kits.


8. Discovering Site-Specific Requirements.

    Recommended Facility Documentation.

       Site Map.

      Building Construction.

      Building Contents.

      Defined User Areas and Densities.

    Limitations Affecting Equipment Installations.

      Customer Restrictions.

      Regulatory Limitations.

      Environmental Concerns.

    Using Cookie Cutter Designs.


9. Discovering Wired Network Requirements.

    Switches, Routers, and Hubs.


      Developing a Policy for Device Roaming.

      802.11f IAPP.

      Association of Clients.

      Layer 2 Roaming.

      Layer 3 Roaming.

      The Nomadic-Node Approach.

      The Mobile-Node Approach.

      Mobile IP.

      Mobile IP Disadvantages.

      Proxy Mobile IP.

      Layer 3 Wireless Switching.

    Deploying VLANs over Wireless.

    QoS for WLANs.

      Wireless QoS Deployment Schemes.

      Downstream and Upstream QoS.

      QoS and Network Performance.

    Cabling Requirements.

      Power over Ethernet.


      Proprietary PoE Methods.



10. Discovering Wired Network Requirements.

    Types of Site Surveys.




      Theoretical Surveys.

    Manual Site Survey Tools.

      Cisco Systems Aironet Client Utility.

      Cisco Systems Aironet Desktop Utility.

      Intel Centrino Utility.

      ORiNOCO Survey Utility.

      Netgear Clients.

      Wireless 802.11 Phones.


      AirMagnet Site Survey Utility (SiteViewer).

      DOS and Other Systems That Do Not Support Standard Utilities.

    Automatic and Assisted Site Survey Tools.


      Cisco Assisted Survey Utility.

    Theoretical Site Survey Tools.


11. Performing a WLAN Site Survey.

    Steps in the Site Survey Process.

      Obtain a Floor Plan or Facility Blueprint.

      Inspect the Facility.

      Identify User Areas on the Diagram.

      Identify Potential Problems Areas on the Diagram.

      Identify AP Locations and Antenna Types.

      RF Issues in the Site.

      Detecting Interference.

      The Walkabout Test.

      Performing a Manual Survey.

      Documenting the Site Survey.

    Surveying with the AirMagnet Tool.

    Assisted Site Surveys.

      Performing a User-Density Test.

      Using the Assisted Site Survey Tool.

      RF Configuration Parameters.

    Site Surveying for Repeater Usage.

    Dual-Band Surveys.

    Site Surveys for Voice.

    Final Verification.



12. Installing WLAN Products.

    Understanding Installation Issues.

      Facility Construction.


      Physical Security.


      Building Codes.

    Proper AP Mounting.

      Wall Mounting.

      Ceiling Mounting.

    Proper Antenna Mounting.

    Ethernet Considerations.


13. Preparing the Proper Documentation.

    Final Site Survey Report.

    Documenting the Work.

    Site Survey Report-Generation Programs.


14. Outdoor Bridge Deployments.

    Understanding Bridge System Characteristics.

    Understanding Bridge Topologies.

    Using Common Applications over Bridges.



      Voice over IP.


    Feasibility Study.

      Determining Line of Sight.

      Environmental Issues.

      Fresnel Zone.

      Determining the Possible Coverage Distance.

    Interference Study.

    Installing Bridges.

      Lightning Protection.

      Indoor Testing Before Installation: Understanding Maximum Operational Receive Level.

      Aligning the Antenna.

      Weatherproofing the Connectors.

      Parallel Bridge Links for Increased Throughput.



Appendix A. WLAN Product References.

Appendix B. Antenna Radiation Patterns.

Appendix C. Alternative Antennas.

Appendix D. Sample Forms.




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