larger cover

Add To My Wish List

Register your product to gain access to bonus material or receive a coupon.

Detecting, Troubleshooting, and Preventing Congestion in Storage Networks

Best Value Purchase

Book + eBook Bundle

  • Your Price: $79.44
  • List Price: $136.98
  • Includes EPUB and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Acrobat® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

Individual Purchases


  • Your Price: $55.99
  • List Price: $69.99
  • Usually ships in 24 hours.

eBook (Watermarked)

  • Your Price: $53.59
  • List Price: $66.99
  • Includes EPUB and PDF
  • About eBook Formats
  • This eBook includes the following formats, accessible from your Account page after purchase:

    ePub EPUB The open industry format known for its reflowable content and usability on supported mobile devices.

    Adobe Reader PDF The popular standard, used most often with the free Acrobat® Reader® software.

    This eBook requires no passwords or activation to read. We customize your eBook by discreetly watermarking it with your name, making it uniquely yours.

  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2024
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 736
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-788723-X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-788723-1

The complete practical guide to architect storage networks for maximum efficiency, and to quickly troubleshoot congestion issues.

Data is the most important entity in a data center. In addition to being stored securely for the long term, data must be accessible to applications with low latency so that high performance can be maintained 24/7. To meet this performance goal of applications, the storage infrastructure services must be designed accordingly.

In Detecting, Troubleshooting, and Preventing Congestion in Storage Networks, leading Cisco experts take a practical approach to explaining the congestion handling mechanisms of the transport technologies like FC, FCoE, RoCE, and TCP. The authors share proven troubleshooting methodology developed through years of firsthand experience as well as analytical techniques for monitoring the storage fabrics and gaining predictive insights.

Through real-world experiences and case study examples, you'll learn what questions to ask, how to start planning, what exists today, what components still must evolve, and how to drive value in building custom applications in detecting congestion in large-scale storage networks.

  • Optimize user experience with faster resolution of congestion in storage networks in production data centers
  • Master congestion handling mechanisms in technologies like FC, FCoE, RoCE, and TCP
  • Applicable to networks connected to all storage array types and vendors including Dell, HPE, IBM, NetApp, Hitachi
  • Real-world case studies and troubleshooting methodology ensuring storage SLAs are consistently met
  • Increase uptime with custom analytical tools for predicting and resolving congestion
  • Boost storage infrastructure efficiency in a hybrid cloud model
  • Save on employee training and reduce support ticket hassles with vendors

Online Sample Chapter

Solving Congestion with Storage I/O Performance Monitoring

Sample Pages

Download the sample pages (includes Chapter 5)

Table of Contents

    Introduction xxxii

Chapter 1 Introduction to Congestion in Storage Networks 1

    Types of Storage in a Data Center 1

    Storage Protocols, Transports, and Networks 6

    Storage Networks 21

    Congestion in Storage Networks: An Overview 28

    NVMe over Fabrics 43

    Quality of Service (QoS) 46

    Summary 51

    References 52

Chapter 2 Understanding Congestion in Fibre Channel Fabrics 55

    Fibre Channel Flow Control 55

    Congestion Spreading in Fibre Channel Fabrics 67

    Frame Flow Within a Fibre Channel Switch 86

    The Effects of Bit Errors on Congestion 92

    B2B Credit Loss and Recovery 112

    Fibre Channel Counters Summary 123

    Summary 127

    References 127

Chapter 3 Detecting Congestion in Fibre Channel Fabrics 129

    Congestion Detection Workflow 129

    Congestion Detection Metrics 135

    Congestion Detection Metrics on Cisco MDS Switches 137

    Automatic Alerting 168

    Detecting Congestion Using Remote Monitoring Platforms 177

    Detecting Congestion Due to Slow Drain and Overutilization 192

    Slow Drain and Overutilization at the Same Time 194

    Detecting Congestion on long-distance links 195

    Summary 195

    References 196

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting Congestion in Fibre Channel Fabrics 199

    Troubleshooting Methodology and Workflow 199

    Hints and Tips for Troubleshooting Congestion 214

    Cisco MDS NX-OS Commands for Troubleshooting Congestion 219

    Case Study 1: Finding Congestion Culprits and Victims in a Single-Switch Fabric 242

    Case Study 2: Credit Loss Recovery Causing Frame Drops 271

    Case Study 3: Overutilization on a Single Device Causing Massive Congestion Problems 297

    Case Study 4: Long-Distance ISLs Causing Congestion 323

    Summary 336

    References 337

Chapter 5 Solving Congestion with Storage I/O Performance Monitoring 339

    Why Monitor Storage I/O Performance? 339

    How and Where to Monitor Storage I/O Performance 340

    Cisco SAN Analytics Architecture 344

    Understanding I/O Flows in a Storage Network 347

    I/O Flow Metrics 350

    I/O Operations and Network Traffic Patterns 358

    Summary 379

    References 379

Chapter 6 Preventing Congestion in Fibre Channel Fabrics 381

    An Overview of Eliminating or Reducing Congestion 382

    Link Capacity 386

    Congestion Recovery by Disconnecting the Culprit Device 387

    Congestion Recovery by Dropping Frames 388

    Traffic Segregation 398

    Congestion Prevention Using Rate Limiters on Storage Arrays 433

    Congestion Prevention Using Dynamic Ingress Rate Limiting on Switches 436

    Preventing Congestion by Notifying the End Devices 457

    Network Design Considerations 469

    Summary 475

    References 476

Chapter 7 Congestion Management in Ethernet Storage Networks 479

    Ethernet Flow Control 479

    Understanding Congestion in Lossless Ethernet Networks 506

    Detecting Congestion in Lossless Ethernet Networks 511

    Troubleshooting Congestion in Lossless Ethernet Networks 534

    Preventing Congestion in Lossless Ethernet Networks 547

    Lossless Traffic with VXLAN 565

    Summary 569

    References 570

Chapter 8 Congestion Management in TCP Storage Networks 573

    Understanding Congestion in TCP Storage Networks 574

    Storage I/O Performance Monitoring 587

    Preventing Congestion in TCP Storage Networks 597

    Detecting Congestion in TCP Storage Networks 615

    Troubleshooting Congestion in TCP Storage Networks 625

    iSCSI and NVMe/TCP in a Lossless Network 630

    iSCSI and NVMe/TCP with VXLAN 631

    Fibre Channel over TCP/IP (FCIP) 631

    Modified TCP Implementations 637

    Summary 638

    References 639

Chapter 9 Congestion Management in Cisco UCS Servers 641

    Cisco UCS Architecture 641

    Understanding Congestion in a UCS Domain 644

    Detecting Congestion in a UCS Domain 645

    The UCS Traffic Monitoring (UTM) App 648

    Summary 668

    References 669

9780137887231, TOC, 1/17/2024

Cisco Press Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Cisco Press and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Cisco Press products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive:

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020