IP Subnetting from Beginning to Mastery LiveLessons (Video Training)
- By Wendell Odom
- Published Feb 21, 2020 by Cisco Press.
Online Video
- Your Price: $159.99
- List Price: $199.99
- About this video
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- Copyright 2020
- Edition: 1st
- Online Video
- ISBN-10: 0-13-549777-9
- ISBN-13: 978-0-13-549777-7
12+ Hours of Video Instruction
Overview
To build the networks used throughout the world you must understand the single most important networking protocol: Internet Protocol, or IP. IP itself has several components, most notably IP addressing, IP routing, IP routing protocols, and of course, IP subnetting.
Unfortunately, learning IP subnetting can be a big challenge. For example, IP subnetting includes many interwoven ideas, and many common tasks in networking require knowledge of those fundamentals. However, output and figures that describe IP networks do not describe the underlying concepts; they just list the numeric facts about addresses and subnets. Without proper background knowledge, people can struggle to connect the facts to the ideas and make the correct conclusions.
Additionally, subnetting math causes the kinds of challenges to both new learners and long-time IT practitioners. Subnetting math works a lot like math word problems did for us all back in school. Thankfully, all the subnetting math can be understood with a little explanation and practice. However, subnetting includes enough different ideas, terms, and math processes so that you might struggle in choosing what number you need to find, what math process to use, and what the results mean once calculated.
This complete IP version 4 (IPv4) subnetting course sets out to solve these problems. The course works through a series of topics about some big ideas, followed by the related subnetting math, and then has available practice for you to build the skill level you need for your purposes. No matter your motivation or current job role, this course helps you
* Learn subnetting: Understand the ideas and terms in each part of IPv4 subnetting, how to use the ideas in the related mathematical processes, and the purpose and meaning of the facts learned by those processes.* Do subnetting: Work through a sequence to first learn by seeing the process, and then transition to doing the process through practice problems with video explanations, internalizing the process so you can do it on your own. * Go faster at subnetting: For those who work with subnetting math every week, or who are studying for certification exams, you must also practice to become fast at these processes. The course discusses speed goals, how to practice for speed, and how to set reasonable speed expectations.
Whether you just want to finally understand subnetting, want to finally be able to do the math, or need to be ready to breeze through the Cisco CCNA exam, this course can help you master IPv4 subnetting. Be better at understanding the ideas, have better conversations at work, be more effective at troubleshooting, reduce the time pressure on Cisco exams–all these can be achieved with this course.
Skill Level
Beginner
Learn How To
* Understand how the subnet ID and subnet mask together represent a subnet.* Identify and describe IPv4 addressing and subnetting processes that can be used to reveal facts about a TCP/IP subnet. * Understand the concepts, and perform the math to find a subnet ID and subnet broadcast address, and find the range of IP addresses in the subnet, beginning with an IP address and mask.* Understand the meaning and purpose of subnet masks, and perform the math to manipulate masks into different formats.* Describe the details of the IPv4 address space and address classes, and predict facts about a class A, B, or C network.* Understand the differences between the choices enterprises make when using entire public IP networks, entire private IP networks, and/or smaller public CIDR blocks in their enterprise networks.* Analyze and describe a corporate subnetting plan, using correct terms and math processes about the number of subnets in the design, the number of host addresses in each subnet, and the possible subnet IDs per the design.* Describe how a subnet mask controls the specifics of a subnetting design.* Analyze the mask used in a design to determine the number of subnets created and the number of hosts per subnet.* Develop a personalized plan for the degree to which you plan to learn each subnetting math process for everyday use and for any upcoming exams.* Describe what it means to use Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) and how using VLSM impacts various subnetting processes.
Who Should Take This Course
* IT professionals who want to understand subnetting concepts and the math, even if they choose to rely on a calculator after class* Networking professionals who need to master subnetting concepts, understand all the math, and perform at least some of the math processes on their own without a calculator regularly in their jobs* Network certification candidates (Cisco CCNA, CCNP, CompTIA Network+, and so on) who need to be ready to do the math, with no calculator and no reference information, at speed, at least for exam day
Course Requirements
* No required prerequisites* Useful suggested reading prior to using the product: You will appreciate the subnetting topics of this class if you know the most basic concepts of IPv4 routing, routers, LANs, and WANs beforehand. You can get that level of knowledge from reading these chapters in the book, CCNA 200-301 Official Cert Guide, Volume 1. In particular:* Chapter 2: “Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs”* Chapter 3: “Fundamentals of WANs and IP Routing”* Chapter 8: “Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs,” using only the section titled “Virtual LAN Concepts”
Materials, Downloads, or Supplemental Content Needed in Advance
* None
Resources
* None Lesson descriptions
Lesson 1: How to Best Use This Course
This lesson includes several videos with advice on how to go about learning IP subnetting and discusses options for more subnetting practice for those who want to quickly answer subnetting questions for exam prep.
Lesson 2: IP Features Related to Subnetting
This lesson discusses the fundamentals of three TCP/IP features related to IP subnetting: IP addressing, IP routing, and IP routing protocols.
Lesson 3: IP Subnetting Defined
This lesson defines and identifies the core concepts of what an IP subnet is and what it means to subnet a network.
Lesson 4: Finding Subnet Facts - /16 and /24 Masks
Lesson 4 introduces the ideas and processes related to finding facts about a subnet; namely, the subnet ID, the subnet broadcast address, and the range of addresses usable as host addresses. The lesson shows you the concepts and processes for the limited cases of using mask values of /16 and /24, which are the two easiest cases mathematically.
Lesson 5: Video QA: Find Subnet Facts with Easy Masks
Lesson 5 provides a series of video practice questions that use the process detailed in Lesson 4 to find the facts about a subnet.
Lesson 6: Finding Subnet Facts - Difficult Masks
Lesson 6 takes the subnetting process introduced in Lesson 4 and adds the details for the same process when using mathematically difficult masks. The process answers the same questions as Lesson 4: given an address and a mask, what are the subnet ID, the subnet broadcast address, and the range of addresses usable as host addresses? The lesson focuses on cases in which the mask is neither /16 nor /24.
Lesson 7: Video QA: Find Subnet Facts, Difficult Masks
Lesson 7 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 6 to find the facts about a subnet, particularly for cases with difficult masks (that is, when the mask is neither /16 nor /24).
Lesson 8: Subnet Mask Concepts and Formats
Lesson 8 begins with two videos about subnet masks: one that explains the core concepts of what a mask is and how it is used, and another that explains the three mask formats. The rest of Lesson 8 focuses on two processes: 1. To convert from a prefix mask to a binary mask and then finally to a dotted-decimal mask2. Vice versa
Lesson 9: Video QA: Convert Subnet Masks
Lesson 9 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 8:* Half about converting from DDN to prefix* Half about converting from prefix to DDN
Lesson 10: Understanding the IPv4 Address Space
Lesson 10 contains several videos that together tell the story of how enterprises use IPv4 addresses. That story weaves through the idea of public and private IP addresses and shows why many companies use a private class A, B, or C network–which is why most IPv4 subnetting subdivides one or more of these private IP networks.
Lesson 11: Finding IP Network Facts
Module 2’s Lessons 5 and 7 show how to find facts about IP subnets. Lesson 11 shows you how to find facts about the Class A, B, and C IP networks. The videos in this lesson focus on the processes to list facts about IP networks and, given an IP address and mask, to find* The network ID* The network broadcast address* The range of addresses usable as host addresses
Lesson 12: Video QA: Finding IP Network Facts
Lesson 12 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 10. In particular, each QA asks you to* List facts about classful networks, such as the class and default mask* Calculate the network ID and network broadcast address
Lesson 13: Noticing Patterns in Subnet IDs
This entire module focuses on interpreting an existing subnetting design–a design that implies a list of subnet IDs. Lesson 13 shows the numeric patterns you can find in the lists of subnet IDs so that you can have more confidence as you work through the details in the processes in the upcoming lessons in this module.
Lesson 14: Finding All Subnets: Exactly 256 Subnets
Lesson 14 shows how to list all the subnet IDs in an existing design, assuming either of the two simplest cases, including* Subnetting a class A network with a /16 mask* Subnetting a class B network with a /24 mask
Lesson 15: Video QA: Find All Subnets with 256 Subnets
Lesson 15 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 14. In particular, each QA asks you to list the first four and last four subnet IDs in a design.
Lesson 16: Finding All Subnets: Less Than 256
Lesson 16 shows how to list all the subnet IDs in an existing design. However, this lesson expands to include more challenging cases compared to Lesson 14; namely, cases with fewer than 256 subnets. Those cases happen to use masks other than /16 and /24, a fact that makes the math processes require some extra steps.
Lesson 17: Video QA: Find All Subnets, Less Than 256
Lesson 17 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 16. In particular, each QA asks you to list the first four and last four subnet IDs in a design.
Lesson 18: Finding All Subnets: More Than 256
Lesson 18 provides details for anyone who wants to cover every case of how to list all subnets. Lesson 18 focuses on cases with more than 256 subnets. Those cases use more difficult masks and more detailed processes and, as a result, require more work.
Lesson 19: Video QA: Find All Subnets, More Than 256
Lesson 19 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 18. In particular, each QA asks you to list the first four and last four subnet IDs in a design.
Lesson 20: Interpreting Existing Subnet Masks
Lesson 20 explains logic and processes that make the following assumptions:* Someone else chose a class A, B, or C network.* Someone else performed a subnet design and chose one mask to use for all subnets.
Lesson 20 shows how to interpret that design to find the number of hosts per subnet in each subnet and the number of subnets in the network.
Lesson 21: Video QA: Interpreting Existing Subnet Masks
Lesson 21 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 20. Each question gives you the design–a class A, B, or C network, along with the one mask used–and you find these values:* The number of hosts per subnet in each subnet* The number of subnets in the network
Lesson 22: Choosing a Subnet Mask
Lesson 22 places you as the designer of the subnetting plan. In particular, you begin the process with some gathered requirements like these:* A class A, B, or C network* The required number of hosts per subnet the design should create* The required number of subnets the design should create* A requirement to use one mask value, and one mask value only, for all subnets
Your job is to decide what single mask value would work. This lesson discusses the process and shows several examples.
Lesson 23: Video QA: Choosing a Subnet Mask
Lesson 23 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 22. Each question gives you the design requirements as follows, and you list the mask value(s) that would meet the requirements:* A class A, B, or C network* The required number of hosts per subnet the design should create* The required number of subnets the design should create* A requirement to use one mask value, and one mask value only, for all subnets
Lesson 24: Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) Basics
Lesson 24 defines the concept of variable length subnet masks (VLSM)–a subnet design choice in which the subnets of a single class A, B, or C network use more than one subnet mask. That single statement defines VLSM, but VLSM and its impact can be easily misunderstood. Lesson 24 sets about explaining the facts and then explaining the design tradeoffs of the choice of whether to use VLSM.
Lesson 25: Finding VLSM Overlaps
The chance of making a mathematical mistake in a subnet design is relatively low when not using VLSM but more likely when using VLSM. In particular, a design mistake might create two subnets whose address ranges overlap–and with VLSM, it is more difficult to notice that mistake. Lesson 25 defines the issues surrounding this type of design mistake, and then presents an organized process you can use to discover any such overlapping IP subnets.
Lesson 26: Video QA: Find VLSM Overlaps
Lesson 26 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 25. Each question gives you a set of planned IP addresses/masks. Your job: Discover whether any of the subnets implied by the address/mask pairs overlap.
Lesson 27: Adding New VLSM Subnets
When not using VLSM, you can calculate all the subnet IDs in the design beforehand, and that process results in a list of subnets with no overlapping addresses. When using VLSM, you cannot predict and pre-list a list of subnets. Then, each time you need a new subnet, you choose a mask to use, and you need to find a new subnet ID that does not overlap with any existing subnets–a process that can result in mistakes that result in address overlaps.
Lesson 27 defines the issues surrounding this type of design mistake, and then presents an organized process you can use to choose a new subnet ID to use in a design.
Lesson 28: Video QA: Adding VLSM Subnets
Lesson 28 provides a series of practice question videos that use the process detailed in Lesson 27. Each question gives you* A set of existing (deployed) IP subnets* The mask for a presumptive new subnet ID
Your job: Find the numerically lowest new subnet ID you could add to the design without overlapping with any of the existing subnets.
Lesson 29: Subnetting on the Exams
If your goal is to pass the CCNA exam, you should watch and consider the advice in all the videos in this lesson. This lesson focuses on the difference between learning subnetting for your everyday job in networking versus being ready to pass the exam.
In particular, this lesson walks you through how to be ready for subnetting questions in the exam. That includes a discussion of the exam and the fact that you might want to plan to use some tables and tools on the exam. It also includes a suggestion for an honest self-assessment of your skills (% correct) and speed, both of which are important for the exam. The lesson closes with some suggestions for where to get more practice–and anyone wanting to do well on the CCNA exam can always use more subnetting practice.
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Table of Contents
IntroductionIP Subnetting from Beginning to Mastery: IntroductionModule 1: Introduction to SubnettingModule introductionLesson 1: How to Best Use This CourseLearning objectives1.1 Subnetting Course Organization1.2 Subnetting Learning Stages1.3 Subnetting Practice Options1.4 Reference ChartsLesson 2: IP Features Related to SubnettingLearning objectives2.1 IP Addressing2.2 IP Routing2.3 IP Routing ProtocolsLesson 3: IP Subnetting DefinedLearning objectives3.1 IP Subnets: Topologies3.2 IP Subnets: Concepts3.3 IP Subnets: MathModule 2: Analyzing Existing SubnetsModule introductionLesson 4: Finding Subnet Facts - /16 and /24 MasksLearning objectives4.1 Process: Find Subnet Facts with Easy (/16, /24) Masks4.2 Experiencing the Process - Example 1, Class A, /244.3 Experiencing the Process - Example 2, Class B, /244.4 Experiencing the Process - Example 3, Class A, /164.5 How and Where to PracticeLesson 5: Video QA: Find Subnet Facts with Easy MasksLearning objectives5.1 QA 1: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /245.2 QA 2: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /245.3 QA 3: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /245.4 QA 4: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /245.5 QA 5: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /165.6 QA 6: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /16Lesson 6: Finding Subnet Facts - Difficult MasksLearning objectives6.1 Process: Find Subnet Facts with Difficult Masks6.2 Experiencing the Process - Example 1: 10.1.7.3 /236.3 Experiencing the Process - Example 2: 172.16.55.56 /206.4 Experiencing the Process - Example 3: 10.200.100.100 /266.5 Experiencing the Process - Example 4: 10.200.100.200 /146.6 How and Where to PracticeLesson 7: Video QA: Find Subnet Facts, Difficult MasksLearning objectives7.1 QA 1: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /157.2 QA 2: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /137.3 QA 3: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /127.4 QA 4: Find Subnet Facts, Class A, /117.5 QA 5: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /197.6 QA 6: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /227.7 QA 7: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /217.8 QA 8: Find Subnet Facts, Class B, /187.9 QA 9: Find Subnet Facts, Class C, /257.10 QA 10: Find Subnet Facts, Class C, /277.11 QA 11: Find Subnet Facts, Class C, /297.12 QA 12: Find Subnet Facts, Class C, /30Module 3: Converting Subnet MasksModule introductionLesson 8: Subnet Mask Concepts and FormatsLearning objectives8.1 Subnet Mask Concepts8.2 Subnet Mask Formats8.3 Process: Converting DDN to Prefix Masks8.4 Experiencing the Process - Convert DDN to Prefix Mask: Three Examples8.5 Process: Converting Prefix to DDN Masks8.6 Experiencing the Process - Convert Prefix to DDN Masks: Three Examples8.7 How and Where to PracticeLesson 9: Video QA: Convert Subnet MasksLearning objectives9.1 QA 1: Convert Subnet Masks, 255.255.255.2489.2 QA 2: Convert Subnet Masks, 255.255.255.1929.3 QA 3: Convert Subnet Masks, 255.255.254.09.4 QA 4: Convert Subnet Masks, 255.255.224.09.5 QA 5: Convert Subnet Masks, 255.252.0.09.6 QA 6: Convert Subnet Masks, /309.7 QA 7: Convert Subnet Masks, /259.8 QA 8: Convert Subnet Masks, /229.9 QA 9: Convert Subnet Masks, /189.10 QA 10: Convert Subnet Masks, /13Module 4: Analyzing IP NetworksModule introductionLesson 10: Understanding the IPv4 Address SpaceLearning objectives10.1 IP Networks Vs. IP Subnets10.2 Public IP Networks10.3 IPv4 Address Classes: Class A10.4 IPv4 Address Classes: Class B10.5 IPv4 Address Classes: Class C10.6 Default Masks10.7 Private IP Networks10.8 CIDR BlocksLesson 11: Finding IP Network FactsLearning objectives11.1 Process: Listing Basic Facts about IP Networks11.2 Process: Calculating Facts about IP Networks11.3 Experiencing the Process: Example 1 - 172.21.1.111.4 Experiencing the Process: Example 2 - 200.3.4.511.5 Experiencing the Process: Example 3 - 9.99.199.911.6 How and Where to PracticeLesson 12: Video QA: Finding IP Network FactsLearning objectives12.1 QA 1: Find Network Facts, 10.155.18.9712.2 QA 2: Find Network Facts, 172.21.134.24312.3 QA 3: Find Network Facts, 192.168.56.8712.4 QA 4: Find Network Facts, 192.168.219.17612.5 QA 5: Find Network Facts, 172.22.18.3512.6 QA 6: Find Network Facts, 55.66.77.8812.7 QA 7: Find Network Facts, 172.24.1.22312.8 QA 8: Find Network Facts, 172.26.223.4212.9 QA 9: Find Network Facts, 192.168.119.9512.10 QA 10: Find Network Facts, 192.168.200.1Module 5: Finding All Subnets in a NetworkModule introductionLesson 13: Noticing Patterns in Subnet IDsLearning objectives13.1 Subnet ID Patterns When Using 1 Easy Mask13.2 Subtle Subnet ID Patterns When Using 1 Difficult Mask13.3 Using Classful Addressing Logic to Identify the Number of SubnetsLesson 14: Finding All Subnets: Exactly 256 SubnetsLearning objectives14.1 Process Overview: List of All Subnets of a Network14.2 Process Details: List All Subnets, Class B, 256 Subnets14.3 Experiencing the Process: List All Subnets, Class B, /2414.4 Process Details: List All Subnets, Class A, 256 Subnets14.5 Experiencing the Process: List All Subnets, Class A, /1614.6 How and Where to PracticeLesson 15: Video QA: Find All Subnets with 256 SubnetsLearning objectives15.1 QA 1: Find All Subnets, 172.21.0.0, /2415.2 QA 2: Find All Subnets, 172.22.0.0, /2415.3 QA 3: Find All Subnets, 172.23.0.0, /2415.4 QA 4: Find All Subnets, 172.24.0.0, /2415.5 QA 5: Find All Subnets, 172.25.0.0, /2415.6 QA 6: Find All Subnets, 16.0.0.0, /1615.7 QA 7: Find All Subnets, 17.0.0.0, /1615.8 QA 8: Find All Subnets, 18.0.0.0, /1615.9 QA 9: Find All Subnets, 19.0.0.0, /1615.10 QA 10: Find All Subnets, 20.0.0.0, /16Lesson 16: Finding All Subnets: Less Than 256Learning objectives16.1 Designs that Result in Less than 256 Subnets16.2 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class A, <256 Subnets16.3 Experiencing the Process: Example, Class A, /1516.4 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class B, <256 Subnets16.5 Experiencing the Process: Example, Class B, /2016.6 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class C, <256 Subnets16.7 Experiencing the Process: Example, Class C, /2916.8 How and Where to PracticeLesson 17: Video QA: Find All Subnets, Less Than 256Learning objectives17.1 QA 1: Find All Subnets, Class A, Mask /1017.2 QA 2: Find All Subnets, Class A, Mask /1117.3 QA 3: Find All Subnets, Class A, Mask /1217.4 QA 4: Find All Subnets, Class A, Mask /1417.5 QA 5: Find All Subnets, Class B, Mask /1717.6 QA 6: Find All Subnets, Class B, Mask /1817.7 QA 7: Find All Subnets, Class B, Mask /1917.8 QA 8: Find All Subnets, Class B, Mask /2117.9 QA 9: Find All Subnets, Class C, Mask /2517.10 QA 10: Find All Subnets, Class C, Mask /2617.11 QA 11: Find All Subnets, Class C, Mask /2817.12 QA 12: Find All Subnets, Class C, Mask /30Lesson 18: Finding All Subnets: More Than 256Learning objectives18.1 Designs that Result in More than 256 Subnets18.2 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class A, >256 Subnets18.3 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class B, >256 Subnets18.4 Process: Finding All Subnets: Class A, >65,536 Subnets18.5 How and Where to PracticeLesson 19: Video QA: Find All Subnets, More Than 256Learning objectives19.1 QA 1: Class A, Mask /2019.2 QA 2: Class A, Mask /1819.3 QA 3: Class B, Mask /2819.4 QA 4: Class B, Mask /2619.5 QA 5: Class A, Mask /28Module 6: Subnet Masks and Subnet DesignModule introductionLesson 20: Interpreting Existing Subnet MasksLearning objectives20.1 Process: Finding the Number of Hosts/Subnet20.2 Experiencing the Process: Finding the Number of Hosts/Subnet20.3 Process: Finding the Number of Subnets20.4 Experiencing the Process: Finding the Number of Subnets20.5 How and Where to PracticeLesson 21: Video QA: Interpreting Existing Subnet MasksLearning objectives21.1 QA 1: Class A, Mask /1821.2 QA 2: Class B, Mask /1821.3 QA 3: Class A, Mask /2721.4 QA 4: Class B, Mask /2721.5 QA 5: Class C, Mask /2721.6 QA 6: Class A, Mask /2921.7 QA 7: Class B, Mask /2921.8 QA 8: Class C, Mask /29Lesson 22: Choosing a Subnet MaskLearning objectives22.1 Logic for Choosing a Mask Based on Requirements22.2 Process: Choosing Masks Based on Requirements22.3 Experiencing the Process: Choosing the Masks, Example 122.4 Experiencing the Process: Choosing the Masks, Example 222.5 Experiencing the Process: Choosing the Masks, Example 322.6 How and Where to PracticeLesson 23: Video QA: Choosing a Subnet MaskLearning objectives23.1 QA 1: Choosing the Masks23.2 QA 2: Choosing the Masks23.3 QA 3: Choosing the Masks23.4 QA 4: Choosing the Masks23.5 QA 5: Choosing the MasksModule 7: Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)Module introductionLesson 24: Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) BasicsLearning objectives24.1 Recognizing VLSM24.2 How VLSM Conserves IP Addresses24.3 VLSM Pros and Cons24.4 Preparing for VLSM Exam QuestionsLesson 25: Finding VLSM OverlapsLearning objectives25.1 Finding VLSM Overlaps25.2 Experiencing the Process: Find VLSM Overlaps25.3 How and Where to PracticeLesson 26: Video QA: Find VLSM OverlapsLearning objectives26.1 QA 1: Find VLSM Overlaps26.2 QA 2: Find VLSM Overlaps26.3 QA 3: Find VLSM OverlapsLesson 27: Adding New VLSM SubnetsLearning objectives27.1 Defining the Process to Add New VLSM Subnets27.2 Experiencing the Process: Add New VLSM Subnets Example 127.3 Experiencing the Process: Add New VLSM Subnets Example 227.4 How and Where to PracticeLesson 28: Video QA: Adding VLSM SubnetsLearning objectives28.1 QA 1: Adding VLSM Subnets28.2 QA 2: Adding VLSM Subnets28.3 QA 3: Adding VLSM SubnetsModule 8: Subnetting on Cisco ExamsModule introductionLesson 29: Subnetting on the ExamsLearning objectives29.1 CCNA Exam Overview29.2 Exam Day Tactics for Subnetting29.3 Self-Assessment of Your Subnetting Skills29.4 Perfecting Your Subnetting Skills: Your Next StepsSummaryIP Subnetting from Beginning to Mastery: Summary