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IPv6 Fundamentals: A Straightforward Approach to Understanding IPv6, 2nd Edition

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  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2017
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Edition: 2nd
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-467060-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-467060-7

Organizations are increasingly transitioning to IPv6, the next generation protocol for defining how devices of all kinds communicate over networks. Now fully updated, IPv6 Fundamentals offers a thorough, friendly, and easy-to-understand introduction to the knowledge and skills you need to deploy and operate IPv6 networks.

Leading networking instructor Rick Graziani explains all the basics simply and clearly, step-by-step, providing all the details you’ll need to succeed. You’ll learn why IPv6 is necessary, how it was created, how it works, and how it has become the protocol of choice in environments ranging from cloud to mobile and IoT.

Graziani thoroughly introduces IPv6 addressing, configuration options, and routing protocols, including EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3 (traditional configuration and with address families). Building on this coverage, he then includes more in-depth information involving these protocols and processes.

This edition contains a completely revamped discussion of deploying IPv6 in your network, including IPv6/IPv4 integration, dynamic address allocation, and understanding IPv6 from the perspective of the network and host. You’ll also find improved coverage of key topics such as Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC), DHCPv6, and the advantages of the solicited node multicast address.

Throughout, Graziani presents command syntax for Cisco IOS, Windows, Linux, and Mac OS, as well as many examples, diagrams, configuration tips, and updated links to white papers and official RFCs for even deeper understanding.

  • Learn how IPv6 supports modern networks encompassing the cloud, mobile, IoT, and gaming devices 
  • Compare IPv6 with IPv4 to see what has changed and what hasn’t 
  • Understand and represent IPv6 addresses for unicast, multicast, and anycast environments 
  • Master all facets of dynamic IPv6 address allocation with SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6, and stateful DHCPv6 
  • Understand all the features of deploying IPv6 addresses in the network including temporary addresses and the privacy extension 
  • Improve operations by leveraging major enhancements built into ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol 
  • Configure IPv6 addressing and Access Control Lists using a common topology 
  • Implement routing of IPv6 packets via static routing, EIGRP for IPv6, and OSPFv3 
  • Walk step-by-step through deploying IPv6 in existing networks, and coexisting with or transitioning from IPv4

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxv
Part I Introduction to IPv6 1
Chapter 1 Introduction to IPv6 3
    IPv6 Is Here 3
        Why Transition to IPv6? 5
    IPv4 8
        IPv4 Address Depletion 8
        CIDR 11
        NAT with Private Addresses 13
    What About IPv5? 19
    The Fascinating History of IPv6 19
        Some Background 20
        IPv4 Address Exhaustion and the Need for More International
        Involvement 21
        A Call for Proposals 22
        A More IP Version of IPv6 23
    IPv6: More Than Just Longer Addresses 24
    IPv6 Myths 25
    Transitioning to IPv6 26
    Summary 28
    Review Questions 28
    References 29
        Endnotes 29
        RFCs 29
        Websites 31
Chapter 2 IPv6 Primer 33
    Hexadecimal Number System 34
    IPv6 Address Types 37
        Global Unicast Address (GUA) 37
        Link-Local Unicast Address 37
        Unspecified Address 38
        Solicited-Node Multicast Address 38
    Address Terminology 41
    ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) 41
        Neighbor Solicitation (NS) and Neighbor Advertisement (NA) Messages 42
        Router Solicitation (RS) and Router Advertisement (RA) Messages 42
    Dynamic Address Allocation 43
    Summary 45
    Review Questions 46
        References 48
        RFCs 48
Chapter 3 Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 49
    Comparing the IPv4 and IPv6 Headers 49
        The IPv4 and IPv6 Version Fields 51
        IPv4 Internet Header Length (IHL) Field 51
        IPv4 Type of Service (ToS) and IPv6 Traffic Class Fields 52
        IPv6 Flow Label Field 54
        IPv4 Total Length Field, IPv6 Payload Length Field, and IPv6 Jumbograms 54
        IPv4 and IPv6 MTUs 56
        IPv4 Fragmentation 57
        IPv6 Fragmentation: IPv6 Source Only 58
        IPv4 Protocol and IPv6 Next Header Fields 59
        IPv4 Time to Live (TTL) and IPv6 Hop Limit Fields 62
        Checksums: IPv4, TCP, and UDP 63
        IPv4 and IPv6 Source Address and Destination Address Fields 65
        IPv4 Options and Padding Fields, IPv6 Fixed Length 65
    IPv6 over Ethernet 66
    Packet Analysis Using Wireshark 66
    Extension Headers 69
        Hop-by-Hop Options Extension Header 72
        Routing Extension Header 74
        Fragment Extension Header 76
        IPsec: AH and ESP Extension Headers 77
        Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Extension Header 79
        Authentication Header (AH) Extension Header 81
        Destination Options Extension Header 82
        No Next Header 84
    Comparing IPv4 and IPv6 at a Glance 84
    Summary 86
    Review Questions 86
    References 86
        RFCs 86
        Websites 87
Part II IPv6 Addresses 89
Chapter 4 IPv6 Address Representation and Address Types 91
    Representation of IPv6 Addresses 91
        Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s 93
        Rule 2: Omit All-0s Hextets 95
        Combining Rule 1 and Rule 2 96
    Prefix Length Notation 98
    IPv6 Address Types 99
        IPv6 Address Space 100
    Unicast Addresses 103
        Global Unicast Address 104
        Link-Local Unicast Address 106
        Loopback Addresses 109
        Unspecified Addresses 109
        Unique Local Addresses 110
        IPv4 Embedded Address 114
    Multicast Addresses 115
    Anycast Addresses 118
    Summary 119
    Review Questions 121
    References 122
        Endnote 122
        RFCs 122
        Websites 123
        Book 123
Chapter 5 Global Unicast Address 125
    Structure of a Global Unicast Address 126
        Global Routing Prefix 128
        Subnet ID 129
        Interface ID 129
    Manual Configuration of a Global Unicast Address 130
        Manual GUA Configuration for Cisco IOS 131
        Manual GUA Configuration with EUI-64 for Cisco IOS 135
        Manual GUA Configuration with IPv6 Unnumbered for Cisco IOS 137
        Manual GUA Configuration for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS 137
        Implementing Static Routing and Verifying Connectivity with Ping 141
    Recognizing the Parts of a GUA Address and the 3—1—4 Rule 142
        Examining Other Prefix Lengths 144
    Subnetting IPv6 145
        Extending the Subnet Prefix 148
        Subnetting on a Nibble Boundary 149
        Subnetting Within a Nibble 150
        Subnetting /127 Point-to-Point Links 151
        ipv6gen: An IPv6 Subnetting Tool 155
    Prefix Allocation 156
        Provider-Aggregatable (PA) and Provider-Independent (PI) Address
        Space 158
    General Prefix Option 160
    Dynamic Addressing Methods with SLAAC and DHCPv6 162
    Summary 162
    Review Questions 163
    References 164
        Endnote 164
        RFCs 164
        Websites 165
Chapter 6 Link-Local Unicast Address 167
    Structure of a Link-Local Unicast Address 169
    Automatic Configuration of a Link-Local Address 170
        EUI-64 Generated Interface ID 170
        Randomly Generated Interface ID 175
    Manual Configuration of a Link-Local Address 179
    Link-Local Address and Duplicate Address Detection 182
    Link-Local Addresses and Default Gateways 183
    ipv6 enable: Isolated Link-Local Address 184
    Pinging a Link-Local Address 186
    Summary 189
    Review Questions 190
    References 191
        RFCs 191
Chapter 7 Multicast Addresses 193
    Scope 195
        Multicast with Link-Local Scope Versus Link-Local Unicast
        Addresses 197
    Well-Known Multicast Addresses 198
    Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 202
        Mapping Unicast Address to Solicited-Node Multicast Address 204
        Mapping to the Ethernet MAC Address 206
        Verifying the Address Mappings on Cisco IOS, Windows, and Linux 210
        Multiple Devices Using the Same Solicited-Node Multicast Address 212
        One Solicited-Node Multicast Address for Multiple Unicast
        Addresses 214
    Multicast Listener Discovery 216
        MLD Snooping 220
    Summary 221
    Review Questions 222
    References 222
        RFCs 222
        Websites, Videos, and Books 223
Part III Dynamic IPv6 Addressing 225
Chapter 8 Basics of Dynamic Addressing in IPv6 227
    Dynamic IPv4 Address Allocation: DHCPv4 227
    Dynamic IPv6 Address Allocation 229
        ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages 230
        Router Advertisement Methods and the A, O, and M Flags 233
        Method 1: Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) 235
        Method 2: SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6 237
        Method 3: Stateful DHCPv6 238
    DHCPv6 Services 240
        DHCPv6 Terminology and Message Types 241
        DHCPv6 Communications 245
    Summary 248
    Review Questions 249
    References 250
        RFCs 250
        Website 250
Chapter 9 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) 251
    The RA Message and SLAAC 252
        On-Link Determination 258
    Generating an Interface ID 260
        Generating the Interface ID Using the EUI-64 Process 261
        Privacy Extension for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 266
        Privacy Extension and Generating Randomized Interface IDs 267
        Privacy Extension and Temporary Addresses 268
    Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes 270
        Example: Autoconfigured Address States and Lifetimes 272
    Router Advertisement Fields and Options 279
        Examining the Router Advertisement with Wireshark 279
        Modifying the Valid Lifetime and Preferred Lifetime in the RA
        Message 282
        Including the DNS Address in the Router Advertisement 282
        Router Advertisement Configuration Options 284
    Default Address Selection 288
    Configuring the Router’s Interface as a SLAAC Client 290
    Summary 290
    Review Questions 292
    References 294
        RFCs 294
        Websites 295
        Other 295
Chapter 10 Stateless DHCPv6 297
    SLAAC with Stateless DHCPv6 298
    Implementing Stateless DHCPv6 300
        Configuring the RA Message’s Other Configuration Flag 300
        Configuring a Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server 303
        Verifying Stateless DHCPv6 on a Windows Client 304
        Verifying the Router as a Stateless DHCPv6 Server 305
    DHCPv6 Options 306
        rapid-commit Option 306
        Relay Agent Communications 308
    Summary 312
    Review Questions 313
    References 314
        RFCs 314
        Websites 314
Chapter 11 Stateful DHCPv6 315
    Stateful DHCPv6 Messages and Process 316
    Implementing Stateful DHCPv6 317
        Configuring the RA Message M Flag and A Flag 318
        Configuring a Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server 323
        Verifying Stateful DHCPv6 on a Windows Client 326
        Verifying the Router as a Stateful DHCPv6 Server 327
        DHCPv6 Options 329
    IPv6 Prefix Delegation Options for DHCPv6 329
        Sample Configuration: Prefix Delegation with DHCPv6 331
    Summary 340
    Review Questions 341
    References 343
        RFCs 343
        Websites 343
Part IV ICMPv6 and ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 345
Chapter 12 ICMPv6 347
    General Message Format 348
    ICMP Error Messages 352
        Destination Unreachable 352
        Packet Too Big 355
        Time Exceeded 357
        Parameter Problem 360
    ICMP Informational Messages 361
        Echo Request and Echo Reply 361
    Summary 368
    Review Questions 369
    References 371
        RFCs 371
Chapter 13 ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 373
    Neighbor Discovery Options 374
    Default Router and Prefix Determination 375
        Router Solicitation Message 375
        Router Advertisement Message 378
    Address Resolution 384
        The Address Resolution Process 385
        Characteristics of the Neighbor Solicitation Message 388
        Format of the Neighbor Solicitation Message 391
        Format of the Neighbor Advertisement Message 393
    Neighbor Cache 396
        Destination Cache 401
    Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) 402
    Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD) 404
    Redirect Message 405
    Summary 407
    Review Questions 408
    References 411
        RFCs 411
Part V Routing IPv6 413
Chapter 14 IPv6 Routing Table and Static Routes 415
    Configuring a Router as an IPv6 Router 416
    Understanding the IPv6 Routing Table 418
        Codes: NDp and ND 420
        Code: Connected 422
        Code: Local 423
    Configuring IPv6 Static Routes 424
        Static Routes with a GUA Next-Hop Address 426
        Static Routes with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 427
        Static Routes with Only an Exit Interface 428
        Default Static Routes with Link-Local Next-Hop Addresses 429
    Verifying IPv6 Static Routes 430
    Summarizing IPv6 Routes 433
        IPv6 Summary Static Route 435
    CEF for IPv6 436
    Summary 438
    Review Questions 439
    References 441
        RFCs 441
        Websites 441
        Books 441
Chapter 15 EIGRP for IPv6 443
    Comparing EIGRPv4 and EIGRPv6 444
    Classic EIGRP for IPv6 446
        Configuring Classic EIGRP for IPv6 447
        Verifying Classic EIGRP for IPv6 450
    EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 456
        Configuring EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 457
        Verifying EIGRP Named Mode for IPv6 464
        Comparing EIGRP Named Mode for IPv4 and IPv6 468
    Summary 470
    Review Questions 472
    References 473
    RFC 473
        Websites 473
        Books 473
Chapter 16 OSPFv3 475
    Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 476
    Traditional OSPFv3 479
        Configuring Traditional OSPFv3 480
        Verifying Traditional OSPFv3 485
    OSPFv3 with Address Families 492
        Configuring OSPFv3 with AF 493
        Verifying OSPFv3 with AF 499
        Configuring OSPFv3 for an IPv4 Island 507
    Summary 509
    Review Questions 511
    References 513
        RFCs 513
        Websites 513
        Books 513
Part VI Implementing IPv6 515
Chapter 17 Deploying IPv6 in the Network 517
    IPv6 Address Plan Considerations 518
        Encoding Information in the Subnet ID 521
        VLAN-Mapped Subnet ID 523
        IPv6 Address Plans 524
    IPv6 VLANs 525
    IPv6 First Hop Redundancy Protocols 529
        ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery 530
        HSRP and VRRP 533
        GLBP 534
        Selecting an FHRP 536
    Dual Stack 536
        IPv6 Address Format in URL Syntax 538
    DNS 539
        DNS Query and Response 543
        Happy Eyeballs 545
    IPv6 Access Control Lists 546
        Configuring IPv6 ACLs 546
    Transition Technologies 550
        Translation with NAT64 551
        Other Translation Techniques 559
    Tunneling IPv6 560
    Conclusion 566
    Summary 566
    Review Questions 568
    References 570
        RFCs 570
        Websites 571
Appendix A Configuring NAT64 and IPv6 Tunnels 573
Appendix B IPv6 Command Quick Reference 601
Appendix C Answers to Review Questions 615
9781587144776, TOC, 5/10/2017


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