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MPLS Fundamentals


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  • Helps networking professionals choose the suitable MPLS application and design for his/her network
  • Provides MPLS theory and relates to basic IOS configuration examples
  • The Fundamental series from Cisco Press launches the basis to readers for understanding the purpose, application, and management of technologies

  • Copyright 2007
  • Dimensions: 7-3/8" x 9-1/8"
  • Pages: 672
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-197-4
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-197-5

A comprehensive introduction to all facets of MPLS theory and practice

  • Helps networking professionals choose the suitable MPLS application and design for their network
  • Provides MPLS theory and relates to basic IOS configuration examples
  • The Fundamentals Series from Cisco Press launches the basis to readers for understanding the purpose, application, and management of technologies

MPLS has emerged as the new networking layer for service providers throughout the world. For many service providers and enterprises MPLS is a way of delivering new applications on their IP networks, while consolidating data and voice networks. MPLS has grown to be the new default network layer for service providers and is finding its way into enterprise networks as well. This book focuses on the building blocks of MPLS (architecture, forwarding packets, LDP, MPLS and QoS, CEF, etc.). This book also reviews the different MPLS applications (MPLS VPN, MPLS Traffic Engineering, Carrying IPv6 over MPLS, AToM, VPLS, MPLS OAM
You will get a comprehensive overview of all the aspects of MPLS, including the building blocks, its applications, troubleshooting and a perspective on the future of MPLS.

Online Sample Chapter

MPLS Fundamentals: Forwarding Labeled Packets

Downloadable Sample Chapter

Download - 712 KB -- Chapter 3: Forwarding Labeled Packets

Table of Contents


Part I: Fundamentals of MPLS

Chapter 1 The Evolution of MPLS

Definition of MPLS

Pre-MPLS Protocols

Benefits of MPLS

                Bogus Benefit

                The Use of One Unified Network Infrastructure

                Better IP over ATM Integration

                BGP-Free Core

                Peer-to-Peer VPN Model Versus Overlay VPN Model0

                Overlay VPN Model0

                Peer-to-Peer VPN Model

                Optimal Traffic Flow

                Traffic Engineering

History of MPLS in Cisco IOS

                Tag Switching to MPLS

                MPLS Applications


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 2 MPLS Architecture


Introducing MPLS Labels

                Label Stacking

                Encoding of MPLS

MPLS and the OSI Reference Model

Label Switch Router

Label Switched Path

Forwarding Equivalence Class

Label Distribution

                Piggyback the Labels on an Existing IP Routing Protocol

                Running a Separate Protocol for Label Distribution

Label Distribution with LDP

Label Forwarding Instance Base

MPLS Payload

MPLS Label Spaces

Different MPLS Modes

                Label Distribution Modes

                Label Retention Modes

                LSP Control Modes


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 3 Forwarding Labeled Packets

Forwarding of Labeled Packets

                Label Operation

                IP Lookup Versus Label Lookup

                Load Balancing Labeled Packets

                Unknown Label

Reserved Labels

                Implicit NULL Label

                Explicit NULL Label

                Router Alert Label

                OAM Alert Label

Unreserved Labels

TTL Behavior of Labeled Packets

                TTL Behavior in the Case of IP-to-Label or Label-to-IP

                TTL Behavior in the Case of Label-to-Label

                TTL Expiration


                MPLS MTU Command

                Giant and Baby Giant Frames

                Giant Frames on Switches

                MPLS Maximum Receive Unit

Fragmentation of MPLS Packets

Path MTU Discovery


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 4 Label Distribution Protocol


LDP Overview

LDP Operation

                The Discovery of LSRs That Are Running LDP

                LDP Session Establishment and Maintenance

                Number of LDP Sessions

                Advertising of Label Mappings

                Label Withdrawing

                Housekeeping by Means of Notification

Targeted LDP Session

LDP Authentication

Controlling the Advertisement of Labels via LDP

MPLS LDP Inbound Label Binding Filtering

LDP Autoconfiguration

MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization

                How MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization Works

                MPLS LDP-IGP Synchronization Configuration

MPLS LDP Session Protection


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 5 MPLS and ATM Architecture


Brief Introduction to ATM

Label Encoding

Label Advertisement

                Downstream-on-Demand Label Advertisement

                LDP Control Mode for ATM


                Label Space

                Loop Detection by LDP

                Loop Detection by Hop Count TLV

                TTL Manipulation

                Loop Detection by Path Vector TLV

                LDP Address Messages

                Blocking Label Requests

Aggregate Labels


Non MPLS-Aware ATM Switches

Label Switch Controller

Multi-Virtual Circuit Tagged Bit Rate

                MPLS CoS

Frame Mode ATM

Reducing the Number of LVCs


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 6 Cisco Express Forwarding


Overview of Cisco IOS Switching Methods

                Process Switching

                Fast Switching

                CEF Switching

Why Is CEF Needed in MPLS Networks?

What Are the Components of CEF?

                The Adjacency Table

                The CEF Table

Operation of CEF

Distributed CEF (DCEF)

CEF Switching Packets in Hardware

Load Balancing in CEF

Unequal Cost Load Balancing

Labeling IP Packets by CEF

Load Balancing Labeled Packets

Troubleshooting CEF


Chapter Review Questions

Part II: Advanced MPLS Topics

Chapter 7 MPLS VPN


Introduction to MPLS VPN

                Definition of a VPN

                VPN Models

                MPLS VPN Model

Architectural Overview of MPLS VPN

Virtual Routing Forwarding



                VPNv4 Route Propagation in the MPLS VPN Network

                Packet Forwarding in an MPLS VPN Network


                BGP Multiprotocol Extensions and Capabilities

                BGP Extended Community: RT

                VPNv4 Routes

                BGP Carrying the Label


                RR Group

                BGP Route Selection

                BGP Multipath

                Using Multiple RDs

Packet Forwarding

PE-CE Routing Protocols

                Connected Routes

                Static Routing

                RIP Version 2


                OSPF VRF Configuration

                OSPF Metric Propagation

                BGP Extended Communities for OSPF

                OSPF Network Design

                Sham Link

                Down Bit and Domain Tag



                Pre-Bestpath POI

                EIGRP PE-CE with Backdoor Links



                Autonomous System Override




VRF Access

Internet Access

                Internet in a VPN

                Internet Access Through the Global Routing Table

                Internet Access Through the Global Routing Table with Static Routes

                Internet Access Through a Central VRF Site

Multi-VRF CE

                OSPF VRF-Lite Command

CE Management


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 8 MPLS Traffic Engineering


The Need for MPLS TE

Overview of the Operation of MPLS TE

Distribution of TE Information

                Requirements for the IGP

                OSPF Extensions for TE

                IS-IS Extensions for TE

                Flooding by the IGP

Routing and Cost of a TE LSP

                Link TE Attributes

                Maximum Reservable Bandwidth

                Attribute Flags

                TE Metric

                Shared Risk Link Groups

                Maximum Reservable Sub-Pool Bandwidth

                MPLS TE Tunnel (Trunk) Attributes

                TE Tunnel Path Calculation

                Path Setup Option

                IP Explicit Address Exclusion

                Setup and Holding Priority


                Periodic Reoptimization

                Event-Driven Reoptimization

                Manual Reoptimization

Dual TE Metrics



                RSVP and Labels

                Record Route Object

                Other Information Carried by RSVP

                Putting It All Together

                Shared Explicit Style

                RSVP Messages





Link Manager


                FRR–Link Protection

                FRR–Node Protection

                SRLG Used by Backup Tunnels

                Multiple Backup Tunnels

Forwarding Traffic onto MPLS TE Tunnels

                Static Routing

                Policy-Based Routing

                Autoroute Announce

                Forwarding Adjacency

                Direct Mapping of AToM Traffic onto TE Tunnels

                Class-Based Tunnel Selection

                Cost Calculation of IGP Routes over TE Tunnels

                Default Cost Calculation

                Adjusting the Cost Calculation

                Load Balancing


                TE Tunnels Between PE Routers

                TE Tunnel with P Router as Tail End Router

                VRF-to-TE Tunnel Routing


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 9 IPv6 over MPLS


Introduction to IPv6

                The Driving Forces for IPv6

                Overview of the IPv6 Protocol

                The IPv6 Header

                The IPv6 Addressing

                Other IPv6 Novelties

                Overview of IPv6 Unicast Routing in Cisco IOS

                IPv6 RIP (RIPng)

                OSPF for IPv6 or OSPFv3

                IS-IS for IPv6

                EIGRP for IPv6

                Multiprotocol BGP Extensions for IPv6


Carrying IPv6 over an MPLS Backbone

MPLS VPN Network Using IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnels on the CE Routers

Carrying IPv6 over an MPLS Backbone (6PE)

                Operation of 6PE

                Configuration of 6PE

                Verifying 6PE Operation

Carrying IPv6 in VPNs Across an MPLS Backbone (6VPE)

                Operation of 6VPE

                Configuration of 6VPE

                Verifying 6VPE Operation

                IPv6 Internet Access Through 6VPE

                Supported Features for 6VPE

Remarks for Both 6PE and 6VPE

                Route Reflectors

                Turning Off TTL Propagation on the PE Routers

                Load Balancing Labeled IPv6 Packets


                BGP Functionality


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 10 Any Transport over MPLS

Understanding the Need for AToM

Transporting Layer 2 Frames

AToM Architecture

                Data Plane of AToM

                Signaling the Pseudowire


                PW Type

                Group ID

                PW ID

                Interface Parameters

                Signaling the Status of the Pseudowire

The Control Word

                Control Word Functions

                Pad Small Packets

                Carry Control Bits of the Layer 2 Header of the Transported Protocol

                Preserve the Sequence of the Transported Frames

                Facilitate the Correct Load Balancing of AToM Packets in the MPLS Backbone Network

                Facilitate Fragmentation and Reassembly

MPLS MTU in the MPLS Backbone

The Basic AToM Configuration

Transported Layer 2 Protocols



                Frame Relay


                Port-to-Port Mode (Port Trunking)


                ATM AAL5

                ATM Cell Relay

                Single Cell Relay Mode

                Packed Cell Relay Mode


                Ethernet Frame Format

                EoMPLS Forwarding

                VLAN ID Rewrite

                EoMPLS Scenario Examples

                Dot1q Tunneling (QinQ) over AToM

AToM Tunnel Selection

AToM and QoS


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 11 Virtual Private LAN Service


The Need for VPLS

VPLS Architecture

VPLS Data Plane

VPLS Signaling

The Basic VPLS Configuration

Verifying the VPLS Operation

VPLS and Tunneling Layer 2 Protocols

                Tunneling Cisco Discovery Protocol

                Tunneling Spanning Tree Protocol

Trunk Port Between the CE and PE

Hierarchical VPLS

                H-VPLS with Dot1q Tunneling (QinQ) in the Access Layer

                H-VPLS with MPLS in the Access Layer

Quality of Service

Limiting MAC Addresses

Routing Peering


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 12 MPLS and Quality of Service


DiffServ with IP Packets

DiffServ with MPLS Packets

Default MPLS QoS Behavior in Cisco IOS

DiffServ Tunneling Models

                Pipe Model

                Short Pipe Model

                Uniform Model

                Advantages of the DiffServ Tunneling Models

                How to Implement the Three DiffServ Tunneling Models

Recoloring the Packet

MQC Commands for MPLS QoS

Moving MPLS QoS from the PE to the CE Router

Implementing the DiffServ Tunneling Models in Cisco IOS

The Table-Map Feature

The Use of MPLS QoS for Ethernet over MPLS


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 13 Troubleshooting MPLS Networks


Label Stack Depth

Verifying Label Switched Path

Tracerouting in MPLS Networks

                Tracerouting in an IP Network

                Label-Aware ICMP

                TTL Behavior in MPLS Networks

                Tracerouting in MPLS Networks

                Problems with Tracerouting in MPLS Networks

                mpls ip ttl-expiration pop Command

                no mpls ip propagate-ttl



Debug MPLS Packets

Debugging Load Balancing of Labeled Packets

Verifying MPLS on the Interface

Verifying Number of Bytes Label Switched

MPLS-Aware Netflow


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 14 MPLS Operation and Maintenance


Requirements of MPLS OAM

                Detection and Diagnosis of Control and Data Plane Defects

                Detection of a Defect in a Label Switched Path (LSP)

                OAM Packets Flowing on the Same Path as MPLS Data Traffic

                Path Characterization

                Measurement of SLAs

                OAM Interworking



Router Alert Option and Router Alert Label

                Router Alert Label

OAM Alert Label


                LSP Ping Protocol Details

                Target FEC Stack

                Downstream Mapping

                Interface and Label Stack TLV

                Errored TLVs TLV

                Reply TOS Byte

                LSP Ping Operation

                LSP Verification

                MPLS Ping in Cisco IOS

MPLS LSP Traceroute

                MPLS Traceroute in Cisco IOS

                Router Alert Label

Load Balancing


IP Service Level Agreement

                VRF-Aware IP SLA

Netflow Accounting


                Context-Based Access for SNMP over MPLS VPN

                MPLS VPN MIBs


                OAM Message Mapping


Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 15 The Future of MPLS


New MPLS Applications

Work at IETF

                MPLS Control Word

                FCS Retention

                AToM Fragmentation and Reassembly

                Circuit Emulation


                OAM Protocols

                MPLS Labeled Multicast

The Proliferation of MPLS


Part III: Appendixes

Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions

Appendix B Static MPLS Labels (online)



Download - 86.3 KB -- Index

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