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Building the Mobile Internet


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  • Brings together complete foundational knowledge about mobility trends, user expectations and technical approaches to making the Internet truly "mobile by design"
  • Presents a clearly organized, layered mobility discussion tied to the OSI model, from link-layer to application-layer
  • Designed for a broad audience of senior technology decision-makers and network design professionals

  • Copyright 2011
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58714-243-0
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58714-243-7

The complete guide to technologies and protocols for delivering seamless mobile Internet experiences

In Building the MobileInternet, three leading mobility architects and implementers from Cisco present complete foundational knowledge about tomorrow’s mobile Internet. The authors cover everything from market trends and user expectations to the latest technical approaches for making the Internet “mobile by design.”

Writing for senior technology decision-makers and network design professionals, the authors explain the relatively static nature of the Internet’s original protocols and design, discuss the concept of “mobility,” and identify evolving mobility requirements. Next, they thoroughly explain each of today’s most promising techniques for building mobility into the Internet, from data link layer to application layer. For each layer, the authors cover mechanisms, protocols, relevant Wi-Fi and cellular architectures, and key use cases.

Using this book’s guidance, mobile network executives can define more effective strategies, network designers can construct more effective architectures, and network engineers can execute more successful migrations.

Mark Grayson, Cisco Distinguished Consulting Engineer, leads Cisco’s mobile architecture strategy. He has 20+ years of wireless experience ranging from military and satellite systems to the evolution of traditional cellular architectures and the creation of new small cell solutions. He has been granted 50+ patents.

Kevin Shatzkamer, Cisco Distinguished Systems Architect, is responsible for long-term strategy and architectural evolution of Cisco mobile wireless networks. His experience ranges from 3G and LTE to security, video distribution, and QoS. He now works with both content providers and service providers to enhance the end-to-end digital media value chain for mobility.

Klaas Wierenga, Senior Consulting Engineer in Cisco’s Office of the CTO, has 15+ years of experience implementing diverse mobility, security, and identity solutions for enterprises, municipalities, hospitals, and universities. He created the worldwide eduroam service for federated network access in academia.

· Understanding key mobility market trends: device proliferation, accelerating consumption, and radio-specific scalability problems

· Reviewing the challenges that mobility presents to conventional Internet architectures

· Understanding nomadicity, including authentication for users moving across networks and operators

· Identifying opportunities to address mobility at the data link layer

· Comparing and using network layer solutions to deliver seamless mobility and session continuity

· Integrating mobility functionality into the transport/session layer

· Adding mobility functionality to the application layer–including support for moving media sessions between devices

· Redesigning Internet architecture to enable long-term improvements to mobility

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

Online Sample Chapter

Achieving Nomadicity: Accessing the Internet Anytime, Anywhere

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Table of Contents

    Introduction xvii

Part I Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction to “Mobility” 1

    Mobility Market 2

    Consumption Trends 5

    Mobile Challenges 9

    Summary 11

    Endnotes 12

Chapter 2 Internet “Sessions” 13

    The Internet and Communication 13

        Packet Switching Versus Circuit Switching 14

        IP over Everything, Everything over IP 15

        Addresses 16

        IPv4 Addresses 16

        IPv6 Addresses 18

        Routing 19

        Routers 19

        Routing Protocols 20

        Broadcast 20

        IP Multicast 20

        Network Address Translation 21

    TCP/IP Five-Layer Model 21

        Layer 1: The Physical Layer 23

        Layer 2: The Data Link Layer 23

        Ethernet 23

        ARP 24

        Layer 3: The Internet or IP Layer 24

        Layer 4: The Transport Layer 24

        UDP 25

        TCP 25

        Layer 5: The Application Layer 27

        Socket API 27

        DNS 28

        DHCP 29

        HTTP 29

    Sessions and Mobility 30

        Session Persistence and the Locator-Identifier Problem 30

        Building the Mobile Internet 31

    Summary 32

    Endnotes 32

Part II Mobility Approaches

Chapter 3 Nomadicity 35

    Authentication and Authorization 36

        Authentication and Authorization in LTE 36

        Authentication and Authorization in Wi-Fi Networks 39

        Captive Portals 39

        802.1X and EAP 39

        Authentication and Authorization for Internet Applications 41

    Federated Identity 41

        Federated Access in LTE 43

        3GPP Access 43

        Non-3GPP Access 43

        Federated Access to Wi-Fi Networks 43

        Roaming to Other Wi-Fi Networks 44

        802.11u 45

        Example of Wi-Fi Roaming: eduroam 45

        Federated Access to Applications with SAML 48

    Location Information and Context Awareness 49

        Location Information in LTE 49

        Location Information for Wi-Fi Networks 50

    Privacy and Security 50

        Privacy and Security in LTE 51

        Privacy and Security in Wi-Fi Networks 51

        Privacy and Security in SAML 51

    DynDNS 52

    Summary 52

    Endnotes 53

    Chapter 4 Data Link Layer Mobility 55

        Mobility Across an Ethernet-Bridged Domain 56

    Interaction Between Mobility and Dynamic IP Address Allocation 57

        Mobility Using Wireless LAN Technology 58

    Fast Wireless LAN Local Mobility 59

        Wireless LANs and Mobility Across a Layer 3 Domain 62

    Interwireless LAN Controller Mobility 64

        GPRS Tunneling Protocol 68

        GPRS Tunneling Protocol 70

        3GPP Mobility Using GTP 73

        Access Point Name 73

        PDP Context Activation 74

        Mobility and Context Transfer 76

    Proxy Mobile IPv6-Based Mobility 77

        IETF Network-Based Mobility 78

        WiMAX Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP 79

        WiMAX Session Establishment 81

        PMIPv6-Based WiMAX Session Mobility 82

        PMIPv6-Based Session Termination 84

        3GPP Mobility Using Proxy Mobile IP 84

        Delivering Equivalent GTP Functions with PMIPv6 85

        Intertechnology Handover 86

    Data Link Layer Solutions to Providing Mobility Across Heterogeneous

        Access Networks 87

        3GPP Generic Access Network 87

        Host Impacts of Data Link Layer Mobility 89

    Summary 90

    Endnotes 91

Chapter 5 Network Layer Mobility 93

    Mobile IPv4 96

        Mobile IPv4 Technology Overview 97

        Network-Specific Terms 97

        Network Element—Specific Terms 98

        Addressing-Specific Terms 99

        Mobile IPv4 Operation 100

        Mobile IPv4 Agent Discovery 101

        Agent Advertisements 101

        Agent Solicitations 102

        Mobile IPv4 Registration and AAA 103

        Mobile IPv4 Registration 103

        RRQ and RRP Messages 105

        Authentication Extensions 108

        Mobile IPv4 AAA Interactions 109

        RADIUS Interactions 111

        Diameter Applications 112

        Mobile IPv4 Tunnels, Bindings, and Datagram Forwarding 114

        Tunneling and Reverse Tunneling 115

        Mobile IPv4 and Layer 2 Interactions 117

        Mobile IPv4 in Practice 119

        3GPP2 Implementation of Mobile IPv4 119

    Mobile IPv6 Technology Overview 122

        Mobile IPv6 Operation 123

        Bidirectional Tunneling Mode 123

        Route Optimization Mode 124

        Mobile IPv6 Messages and Message Formats 126

        Dynamic Home Agent Discovery 130

        Mobile IPv6 Bootstrapping 131

        RADIUS Support for Mobile IPv6 131

        Diameter Support for Mobile IPv6 134

        Network Mobility Basic Support Protocol 134

        Mobile IPv6 in Practice 135

        WiMAX Forum NWG Implementation of Mobile IPv6 136

    Dual-Stack Mobile IP 140

        Mobile IPv4 Extensions to Support IPv6 141

        Mobile IPv6 Extensions to Support IPv4 142

    MOBIKE Technology Overview 143

        IKEv2 Terminology and Processes 144

        IKEv2 IKE_SA_INIT 145

        IKEv2 IKE_AUTH 146

        IKEv2 Message Formats 148

        MOBIKE Protocol 150

        MOBIKE Call Flows 151

        Connectivity Discovery 152

        Network Address Translation (NAT) Traversal 153

        Authentication and Accounting 154

        MOBIKE in Practice 155

        Security Architecture for Non-3GPP Access to Evolved Packet System (EPS) 156

    Summary 159

    Endnotes 160

Chapter 6 Transport/Session Layer Mobility 161

    Lower-Layer Mobility Implications to the Transport Layer 162

    Solving Mobility Above the Network Layer 165

    SCTP 166

        SCTP Functional Overview 167

        SCTP States 168

        Initiation 168

        Data Transfer 169

        Shutdown 173

        SCTP Messages 173

        Message Format 173

        Chunk Types 174

        SCTP Extensions 176

    Multipath TCP 179

        Resource Pooling Principle 180

        MPTCP Functional Architecture 181

        Path Management 184

        MPTCP Application Impacts 185

        MPTCP for Mobility 185

    MSOCKS: An Architecture for Transport Layer Mobility 186

        TLM Protocol 187

        MSOCKS Summary 189

    Other Transport Layer Mobility Approaches 189

        Migrate Internet Project 190

        Migratory TCP 190

    Session Layer Mobility Approaches 191

    Summary 193

    Endnotes 194

Chapter 7 Application Mobility 195

    User-Centric Mobility 195

    Application Mobility Using the Domain Name System 197

        Applicability of DDNS to Interdevice and Intradevice Mobility 198

    Application Mobility Using the Session Initiation Protocol 199

        SIP and Capabilities 199

        SIP Methods 200

        SIP Message Format 201

        SIP Request and Status Lines 201

        SIP Header Fields 202

        SIP Message Body 203

        Basic SIP Mobility 204

        SIP Registration 204

        SIP Authentication 205

        SIP Rendezvous Service 207

        SIP UA Mobility Example 208

        SIP Session Mobility 210

        SIP REFER-Based Session Mobility 210

        3PCC-Based Basic Session Mobility 212

        3PCC-Based Enhanced Session Mobility 213

        Other Application Aspects for Supporting Mobility 214

    Summary 215

    Endnotes 216

Chapter 8 Locator-Identifier Separation 219

    Approaches to Locator-Identifier Separation 221

    HIP 222

        Benefits and Challenges 224

    Locator-Identifier Separation Protocol — Mobile Node (LISP-MN) 225

        LISP 225

        LISP-MN 227

        Benefits and Challenges 228

    NAT66 229

        Benefits and Challenges 230

    Identifier-Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) 231

        Benefits and Challenges 232

    Summary 232

    Parting Thoughts 232

    Endnotes 233

TOC, 9781587142437, 1/5/2011

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