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Business Case for Network Security, The: Advocacy, Governance, and ROI

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  • Description
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  • Copyright 2005
  • Edition: 1st
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  • ISBN-10: 1-58720-121-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58720-121-9

Understand the total cost of ownership and return on investment for network security solutions

  • Understand what motivates hackers and how to classify threats
  • Learn how to recognize common vulnerabilities and common types of attacks
  • Examine modern day security systems, devices, and mitigation techniques
  • Integrate policies and personnel with security equipment to effectively lessen security risks
  • Analyze the greater implications of security breaches facing corporations and executives today
  • Understand the governance aspects of network security to help implement a climate of change throughout your organization
  • Learn how to qualify your organization’s aversion to risk
  • Quantify the hard costs of attacks versus the cost of security technology investment to determine ROI
  • Learn the essential elements of security policy development and how to continually assess security needs and vulnerabilities

The Business Case for Network Security: Advocacy, Governance, and ROI addresses the needs of networking professionals and business executives who seek to assess their organization’s risks and objectively quantify both costs and cost savings related to network security technology investments. This book covers the latest topics in network attacks and security. It includes a detailed security-minded examination of return on investment (ROI) and associated financial methodologies that yield both objective and subjective data. The book also introduces and explores the concept of return on prevention (ROP) and discusses the greater implications currently facing corporations, including governance and the fundamental importance of security, for senior executives and the board.

Making technical issues accessible, this book presents an overview of security technologies that uses a holistic and objective model to quantify issues such as ROI, total cost of ownership (TCO), and risk tolerance. This book explores capital expenditures and fixed and variable costs, such as maintenance and upgrades, to determine a realistic TCO figure, which in turn is used as the foundation in calculating ROI. The importance of security policies addressing such issues as Internet usage, remote-access usage, and incident reporting is also discussed, acknowledging that the most comprehensive security equipment will not protect an organization if it is poorly configured, implemented, or used. Quick reference sheets and worksheets, included in the appendixes, provide technology reviews and allow financial modeling exercises to be performed easily.

An essential IT security-investing tool written from a business management perspective, The Business Case for Network Security: Advocacy, Governance, and ROI helps you determine the effective ROP for your business.

This volume is in the Network Business Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide IT executives, decision makers, and networking professionals with pertinent information about today’s most important technologies and business strategies.

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An interview with author Warren Saxe was published in the March 4, 2005, issue of Investor's Business Daily. Warren spoke about how much firms should spend on computer security, what top executives need to know, and how good security differs from years ago.
Below is an excerpt from the interview, printed with permission of Investor's Business Daily.

IBD: Why write a book on the business case for network security?

Saxe: We started with the information technology managers and asked: How do they effectively sell to the business side that security is needed, and which types?
IT managers live in a subculture that's all about the lack of security. By the time they get to the executive suite and blurt it all out, it can come across as fear-mongering. There's a need to create understanding among nontechnical people: Just what do they need to know and to understand so they can do a better job of oversight?

IBD: What's the right amount to spend on security?

Saxe: It comes down to risk and what risk the company is willing to tolerate. It's hard to say what should be spent.
The problem with assigning a metric, such as a percentage of budget, is that it will almost always be too much or too little. It has to come down to money. Which is why we get into return on investment and the business case for security.
At the end of the day, every financial expenditure, regardless of its perceived importance, must make business sense.


Online Sample Chapter

Policy, Personnel, and Equipment as Security Enablers

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Download - 2.91 MB -- Chapter 5: Policy, Personnel, and Equipment as Security Enablers

Table of Contents



1. Hackers and Threats.

    Contending with Vulnerability

      Realizing Value in Security Audits

    Analyzing Hacking

      Assessing Vulnerability and Response

      Hackers: Motivation and Characteristics

      The Enemy Within: Maliciousness and Sloppiness

    Threats Classification

    The Future of Hacking and Security


    End Notes

2. Crucial Need for Security: Vulnerabilities and Attacks.

    Recognizing Vulnerabilities

      Design Vulnerabilities Issues

      Human Vulnerability Issues

      Implementation Vulnerability Issues

    Categories of Attacks

      The Human Component in Attacks

      Reconnaissance Attacks

      Access Attacks

      Denial of Service Attacks

    Additional Common Attacks


      Scanning and System Detailing


      Password Attacks


      Trust Exploitation

      Software and Protocol Exploitation



      Trojan Horses

      Attack Trends

    Wireless Intrusions

      Wireless Eavesdropping

      Man-in-the-Middle Wireless Attacks

      Walk-By Hacking

      Drive-By Spamming

      Wireless Denial of Service

      Frequency Jamming

      The Hapless Road Warrior

    Social Engineering

      Examples of Social Engineering Tactics

    Summary of Attacks

    Cisco SAFE Axioms

      Routers Are Targets

      Switches Are Targets

      Hosts Are Targets

      Networks Are Targets

      Applications Are Targets


3. Security Technology and Related Equipment.

    Virus Protection

    Traffic Filtering

      Basic Filtering

      Advanced Filtering

      Filtering Summary


      Encrypted VPN

      SSL Encryption

      File Encryption

    Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting: AAA




    Public Key Infrastructure

    From Detection to Prevention: Intrusion-Detection Systems and Intrusion-Prevention Systems

      IDS Overview

      Network- and Host-Based IDS

      IPS Overview

      Target-Based IDS

    Content Filtering

      URL Filtering

      E-Mail Content Filtering

    Assessment and Audit

      Assessment Tools

      Audit Tools

    Additional Mitigation Methods

      Self-Defending Networks

      Stopping a Worm with Network-Based Application Recognition

      Automated Patch Management

      Notebook Privacy Filter


    End Notes

4. Putting It All Together: Threats and Security Equipment.

    Threats, Targets, and Trends

    Lowering Risk Exposure

    Security Topologies

      SAFE Blueprints

      SAFE Architecture

      Using SAFE



5. Policy, Personnel, and Equipment as Security Enablers.

    Securing the Organization: Equipment and Access

      Job Categories

      Departing Employees

      Password Sanctity


    Managing the Availability and Integrity of Operations

    Implementing New Software and Privacy Concerns

      Custom and Vendor-Supplied Software

      Sending Data: Privacy and Encryption Considerations

    Regulating Interactivity Through Information and Equipment Control

      Determining Levels of Confidentiality

      Inventory Control: Logging and Tagging

    Mobilizing the Human Element: Creating a Secure Culture

      Employee Involvement

      Management Involvement: Steering Committee

    Creating Guidelines Through the Establishment of Procedural Requirements

      Policy Fundamentals

      Determining Ownership

    Determining Rules and Defining Compliance

      Corporate Compliance

      User Compliance

    Securing the Future: Business Continuity Planning

    Ensuring a Successful Security Policy Approach

      Security Is a Learned Behavior

      Inviting the Unknown

      Avoiding a Fall into the Safety Trap

      Accounting for the Unaccountable

      Workflow Considerations

      Striving to Make Security Policies More Efficient

    Surveying IT Management

      The Need for Determining a Consensus on Risk

      Infosec Management Survey

      Infosec Management Quotient


6. A Matter of Governance: Taking Security to the Board.

    Security-A Governance Issue

    Directing Security Initiatives

      Steering Committee

      Leading the Way

    Establishing a Secure Culture

      Securing the Physical Business

      Securing Business Relationships

      Securing the Homeland

    Involving the Board

      Examining the Need for Executive Involvement

      Elements Requiring Executive Participation


    End Notes

7. Creating Demand for the Security Proposal: IT Management's Role.

    Delivering the Security Message to Executive Management

    Recognizing the Goals of the Corporation

      Knowing How the Organization Can Use ROP

      Understanding the Organization's Mandate and Directives

      Acknowledging the Organization's Imperatives and Required Deliverables

      Establishing an Appropriate Security Posture

    Outlining Methods IT Managers Can Use to Engage the Organization

      Lobbying Support

    Assessing Senior Business Management Security Requirements

      Every Question Counts: Delivering the Survey to Respondents

      Infosec Operational Survey

      Infosec Operational Quotient


8. Risk Aversion and Security Topologies.

    Risk Aversion

      The Notion of Risk Aversion

      Determining Risk Tolerance

      What Assets to Protect

      Short-Term and Long-Term Risks

    Risk-Aversion Quotient

      Calculating the Risk-Aversion Quotient

      Risk-Aversion Quotient and Risk Tolerance

      Using the Charts

    Security Modeling

      Topology Standards

      One Size Rarely Fits All

      Security Throughout the Network

    Diminishing Returns


9. Return on Prevention: Investing in Capital Assets.

    Examining Cost of Attacks

      Determining a Baseline

      Providing Alternatives

    Budgeting for Security Equipment

      Total Cost of Ownership

      Present Value

    Analyzing Returns on Security Capital Investments

      Net Present Value

      Internal Rate of Return

      Return on Investment

      Payback Period

      The Bottom Line

    Acknowledging Nonmathematical Security Fundamentals


    End Notes


10. Essential Elements of Security Policy Development.

    Determining Required Policies

    Constructing Reliable and Sound Policies





    Using Policy Tools and Policy Implementation Considerations

      Useful Policy Tools

      Policy Implementation

    Performing Comprehensive Monitoring

    Knowing Policy Types

      Physical Security Policies

      Access-Control Policies

      Dialup and Analog Policies

      Remote-Access Policies

      Remote Configuration Policies

      VPN and Encryption Policies

      Network Policies

      Data Sensitivity, Retention, and Ethics Policies

      Software Policies

      Summary of Policy Types

    Handling Incidents


11. Security Is a Living Process.

    Security Wheel








      Internal Issues




      Good Netizen Conduct

    SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats






    End Note


Appendix A. References.

Appendix B. OSI Model, Internet Protocol, and Packets.

Appendix C. Quick Guides to Security Technologies.

Appendix D. Return on Prevention Calculations Reference Sheets.




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