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Cisco IP Telephony: Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation, and Optimization


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  • Description
  • Extras
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2005
  • Edition: 1st
  • Book
  • ISBN-10: 1-58705-157-5
  • ISBN-13: 978-1-58705-157-9

A guide to successful deployment of the Cisco IP Telephony solution

  • Real-world case studies from the Cisco design consulting engineers who developed the PDIOO process provide practical advice on all stages of successful IPT deployment
  • Concise understanding of the PDIOO phases enables architects and engineers to successfully deploy the Cisco IPT solution
  • Division of the process into PDIOO phases provides a logical and defined guide for network engineers and architects as they proceed through each of the phases in deploying the Cisco IPT solution
  • Includes detailed questionnaires for each phase of deployment in the PDIOO cycle—a great aid in understanding customer networks and requirements
  • Network infrastructure design, call processing infrastructure design and applications, and voice-mail system design are covered in depth

Cisco® IP Telephony (IPT) solutions are being deployed at an accelerated rate, and network architects and engineers need to understand the various phases involved in successful deployment: planning, design, implementation, operation, and optimization (PDIOO). On the road to that understanding, those involved need to collect information for each phase of deployment, and then follow through with the best architecture, deployment model, and implementation based on the data collected.

Cisco IP Telephony: Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation, and Optimization is a guide for network architects and engineers as they deploy the Cisco IPT solution. With this book, you will master the PDIOO phases of the IPT solution, beginning with the requirements necessary for effective planning of a large-scale IPT network. From there, you’ll follow a step-by-step approach to choose the right architecture and deployment model. Real-world examples and explanations with technical details, design tips, network illustrations, and sample configurations illustrate each step in the process of planning, designing, implementing, operating, and optimizing a chosen architecture based on information you have collected.

In-depth instruction on each PDIOO phase provides specific details about the tasks involved and best practices for successful implementation of the IPT solution. This book also contains predesigned questionnaires and PDIOO assistance tools that help you determine the requirements of each phase of the PDIOO cycle.

Authors Ramesh Kaza and Salman Asadullah have been involved with Cisco IPT solutions from the beginning and have planned, designed, and implemented major IPT networks using the guidelines found here. Cisco IP Telephony: Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation, and Optimization provides the step-by-step explanations, details, and best practices acquired by the authors while working with the top Cisco IPT customers.

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.


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Table of Contents


F    Foreword

I     Introduction

Part I                           Overview of Technology, Protocols, and the PDIOO Methodology

Chapter 1               Cisco IP Telephony Solution Overview

Legacy Voice and Data Networks

Next-Generation Multiservice Networks

Networks Based on Cisco AVVID

Signaling and Transport Protocols

Telco Signaling Protocols

Analog Signaling

Digital Signaling

VoIP Protocols






IP Telephony Components

Network Infrastructure

Call Processing

CallManager Clustering

Device Weights

Dial Plan Weights

CallManager Directory Services

IP Telephony Endpoints

Cisco IP Phones


Wireless IP Phones

Voice Gateways

Survivable Remote Site Telephony

Cisco CallManager Express

Call Admission Control

CallManager Locations-Based CAC

Gatekeeper CAC


Media Resources


Customer Response Solution

Cisco Unity

Cisco Emergency Responder

Cisco Conference Connection

IP Phone Services

IP Telephony Deployment Architectures

Single-Site Deployment

Centralized Call Processing with Remote Branches

Distributed Call Processing Deployment

Clustering over the IP WAN

Local Failover Deployment Model

Remote Failover Deployment Model

Call-Flow Scenarios

IP Phone-to-IP Phone Call

Intracluster Call

Intercluster Call

Intercluster Call with the Gatekeeper

Off-Net Calls

Using MGCP Gateway

Using H.323 Gateway


Chapter 2               Planning, Design, Implementation, Operation, and Optimization Overview

Planning Phase

Design Phase

Network Infrastructure Design

Design of Call Processing Infrastructure and Applications

Software Version Evaluation

Design Validation

Implementation Phase

Operation and Optimization Phase


Part II                         Large-Scale IPT and Voice-Mail Network

Chapter 3               Large-Scale Enterprise Requirements for IP Telephony

Customer Profile

Data Network Architecture

Voice Network Architecture

Data Applications

Directory and Messaging Architecture

PBX and Voice-Mail System Features

Customer Requirements

System Architecture

IP Phones

Integration and Replacement of Legacy PBX Systems

Integration and Replacement of Legacy Voice-Mail Systems

Voice Gateways

Quality of Service

Call Routing

Emergency Services

IPT Features and Applications


Redundancy and High Availability

Network Management

Return on Investment


Chapter 4               Planning Phase

Getting Started

Network Infrastructure Analysis

Campus Network Infrastructure

Access Layer

Distribution Layer

Core Layer

Cabling Infrastructure

Common Guidelines

QoS in Campus Network Infrastructure

Data and Voice Traffic Characteristics

Oversubscription in Campus Networks

Network Trust Boundaries

IP Phone QoS

Inline Power for IP Phones

Wireless IP Phone Infrastructure

WAN Infrastructure

QoS in WAN Infrastructure

Minimizing Delay

Using Traffic Shaping

Provisioning WAN Bandwidth

Using Voice Compression

Network Services




Directories and Messaging

Power and Environmental Infrastructure

Telecom Infrastructure Analysis

PBX Infrastructure and Migration

Telephony Numbering Plan

Voice-Mail Infrastructure and Migration

Emergency Services

Telephony Features and Applications

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

Securing IPT Infrastructure

Redundancy and High Availability

IPT Network Management System


Chapter 5               Design Phase: Network Infrastructure Design

Call-Processing Architecture

IP Phone Selection

Network Infrastructure Design Tasks

Designing IP Addressing and VLAN Scheme

Designing DHCP and TFTP Services

Central Site LAN Infrastructure

Central Site LAN QoS Design

Access Layer Catalyst 6500 QoS Configuration Guidelines

Distribution and Core Layer Catalyst 6500 QoS Configuration Guidelines

Remote-Site IPT Infrastructure

Remote-Site LAN QoS Design

Configuring the Remote-Site LAN Switches for QoS

Remote-Site WAN QoS Design

Perform DSCP-to-CoS Mappings

Map CoS-to-DSCP Mapping on Remote-Site Routers

Configure WAN Interface Queuing

Central Site WAN QoS Design


Chapter 6               Design of Call-Processing Infrastructure and Applications

High-Level IPT Design

Fax and Analog Terminals

Voice Gateways

Access to the PSTN

Access to the PBX

Media Resources

Conferencing and Transcoding

Music on Hold

IPT Applications


Interactive Voice Response

Call Center

Voice Messaging

Low-Level Design

CallManager Cluster Design

CallManager Scalability and Sizing

Customer Response Solution Server Scalability and Sizing

Sizing the Number of Agents

Sizing the Number of IVR Ports

Sizing the Gateway Trunks for the Call Center

CallManager Group Configuration

CallManager Date/Time Configuration

CallManager Region Configuration

CallManager Location Configuration

Device Pool Configuration

Media Resources Configuration



Music on Hold

Configuring the MRGs and MRGLs

Gateway Selection and Sizing

Dial Plan Architecture

Numbering Plan

Call-Routing Requirements

CallManager Route Plan

Partition Design

Calling Search Space Design

Route Groups

Route Lists

Route Patterns


Inbound Call Routing

Automated Alternate Routing

 Survivable Remote Site Telephony

SRST for Seattle and Melbourne Remote Sites

Fax and Modem

Securing the IPT Infrastructure

Securing CallManager and Application Servers

Using a Firewall and ACLs

Securing the IPT Network from the Outside World

Securing IPT Endpoints

Securing Campus Network Devices

Securing Voice Gateways

Establishing Physical Security

Installing Host-Based Intrusion Detection


Chapter 7          Voice-Mail System Design

Defining the Voice-Mail System Architecture

Microsoft Active Directory and Exchange

Active Directory Architecture

Exchange 2000 Messaging Architecture

Unity Deployment Model

Physical Placement of Unity Servers

High Availability

Securing Unity Servers

Backup of Unity Servers

Voice-Mail Access Options

Telephone User Interface

Graphical User Interface

Designing a Cisco Unity System

Message Store Options and Sizing

Sizing Unity Ports and Sessions

Unity Server Hardware

Data Protection

Exchange Software Licensing

Unity Software Licensing

Extending the Schema for Unity and Unity Bridge

Installing Cisco Unity

Unity Installation Account

End-User Interaction

Integrating Voice Mail

Unity Integration with CallManager

Configuring Partitions and CSS in CallManager

Changing Service Parameters in CallManager

Defining MWI On and Off Numbers in CallManager

Defining Voice-Mail Ports in CallManager

Defining the Voice-Mail Pilot Number

Defining the Voice-Mail Profile

Reserving Ports for MWIs and Outcall Notifications in Unity

Making Changes to the Octel Access Numbers

Configuring the AutoAttendant functionality in Unity

Octel Integration with CallManager

SMDI Integration

Integration Using VG248

Digital Integration Using DPA

Designing the Cisco Unity Networking

 Digital Networking

 Bridge Networking

 AMIS Networking

 VPIM Networking

Networking Octel and Unity

Deployment Architecture with Unity Bridge

Unity Bridge Software and Hardware

Configuring Unity Bridge

System Settings

Digital Networking

Unity Nodes

Octel Nodes

Unity Internet Voice Connector

Customizing the Cisco Unity System


Class of Service

Subscriber Template

Account Policy


Public Distribution Lists

Call Management

Call Handlers

Directory Handlers

Interview Handlers

Call Routing

Restriction Tables


Primary Location

Delivery Locations

Bridge Options









Multiple Directory Handlers

Improving the User Experience During Migration

Export Spoken Names from Octel to Unity

Pre-Enrollment Procedures


Chapter 8               Implementation

Complete Preimplementation Tasks

Perform Implementation Readiness Analysis

Site Readiness

Voice Network Readiness

Data Network Readiness

IP Telephony Readiness

Implement IPT Components

CallManager and Application Server Implementation

Operating System Installation

Installing CallManager and Other Applications

Installing Tools and Third-Party Applications

Implementing Voice Gateways

Implementing Catalyst T1 Voice Gateways Using the WS-X6608-T1 Module

Implementing a Catalyst T1/E1 Voice Gateway by Using a CMM Module

Troubleshooting Gateway Connectivity and Registration Issues

Implementing IP Phones

Implementation of IP Phones Using BAT

Physical Phone Installation

Implementing the Dial Plan

Dialed Number Analyzer

Implementing Cisco IP AutoAttendant

Configuration Steps for AA

Implementing IP ICD

Configuration Steps for IP ICD

Call Center Agent and Supervisor Login Options

Implementing IP IVR

Implementing IP Phone Services

Corporate Directory Access Through IP Phones

Troubleshooting IP Phone Services

Identify the Implementation Tools

Checking the CallManager OS Version

Checking the CallManager Version

Checking the SQL Version

Database Layer Tool to Check SQL Subscriptions

Checking Inconsistencies in the Software Versions Within the Cluster

Multi-Level Administration Tool

Functional Groups

User Groups

Access Levels

MLA Logs

Deploy IPT Solution Pilot

Implementation Acceptance Tests

Post-Implementation Documentation

Day 2 Support

Escalation Procedures


End-User Training

Help Desk Staff Training

Voice Network Administration Staff Training

Voice Network Design/Architecture Staff Training


Chapter 9              Operations and Optimization

Software Upgrades

Operating System Upgrades

Subscribe to Notification Alerts

Stop Services

Use Recommended Server Access Methods to Perform Upgrades

Schedule the Upgrade

Document Registered Device Counts

Windows Operating System Upgrade

CallManager Software Upgrade

Upgrade Planning and Impacts

Failover Procedure

Recovery Methods

Application Software Upgrades

Upgrade Planning and Impacts

IP Phone and Gateway Upgrades

Upgrading the Firmware on a Few Cisco IP Phones or Gateways

Upgrade Planning and Impacts

Failover Procedures and Recovery Methods

BIOS Upgrades

Hardware Upgrades

Memory Upgrades

Server Hardware Upgrades

CallManager Operation and Monitoring Tools

Multilevel Administration

Quality Reporting Tool

QRT Viewer

Real-Time Monitoring Tool

Summary View

Server View

CallProcess View

Service View

Device View

CTI View

Perfmon View

RTMT Alerts

RTMT Reports

CallManager Traces

Trace Configuration

The Troubleshooting Trace Settings Page and Cisco CallManager Trace Collection Tool

Bulk Trace Analysis Tool

 CDR Analysis and Reporting

User Reports

System Reports

Device Reports

Q.931 Translator

Alarm Configurations and Definitions

Backup and Restore System

Password-Changing Tools

Admin Utility

Event Viewer

Bulk Administration Tool

DHCP Management

Optimization Tips

Time Synchronization

CallManager Services

Name Resolution

IP Addressing

Subnetting and VLANs

Proactive Problem Identification and Resolution

Duplex and Speed Settings

Dial Plan Optimization

Route Pattern Design

Partition Rules

Calling Search Space Rules

Prefixing the Digits in Missed and Received Calls

 Securing the Servers

Operating System Hardening

Cisco Security Agent

Service and Enterprise Parameter Fine-Tuning

Deployments Involving Shared Lines

Call Detail Records

CallManager Traces

Firmware Loads

Cluster Guidelines

Removing a Subscriber


Installing Third-Party Software Applications

Changing Session Timeout for CallManager

Cisco Unity Operations

Day 2 Monitoring and Management Tasks

CallManager Day-to-Day Monitoring Task List

CallManager Pre-Upgrade Task List

CallManager Post-Upgrade Task List

IPT Network Management Tools

CiscoWorks and IP Telephony Environment Monitor

Alerts and Activities

Active Partition Selector

Device Management

Notification Services

Fault History


IP Phone Information Facility

SRST Monitoring Management

IP Phone Reachability Testing

IPT Security Displays

IP Phone Help Desk Utility

Gateway Statistics Utility


Part III                       Appendixes

Appendix A               Cisco IP Phone Models and Selection Criteria

Appendix B                IPT Planning Phase: Network Infrastructure Analysis Questionnaire

Appendix C                IPT Planning Phase: Telecom Infrastructure Analysis Questionnaire

Appendix D               IPT Design Phase: IP Phone Selection Questionnaire

Appendix E                IPT Design Phase: IPT Requirement Analysis Questionnaire

Appendix F                Ordering T1/E1 PRI from the Carrier Questionnaire

Appendix G                Voice-Mail Design Questionnaire

Appendix H               IP Implementation Checklist



Download - 139 KB -- Index


Page 468 -- In the fourth paragraph, the last sentence should read:
There are two imperative steps in mirroring:

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