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IPSec Virtual Private Network Fundamentals

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  • Description
  • Sample Content
  • Updates
  • Copyright 2007
  • Pages: 480
  • Edition: 1st
  • eBook (Watermarked)
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-279833-6
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-279833-4

An introduction to designing and configuring Cisco IPsec VPNs

  • Understand the basics of the IPsec protocol and learn implementation best practices
  • Study up-to-date IPsec design, incorporating current Cisco innovations in the security and VPN marketplace
  • Learn how to avoid common pitfalls related to IPsec deployment
  • Reinforce theory with case studies, configuration examples showing how IPsec maps to real-world solutions

    IPsec Virtual Private Network Fundamentals provides a basic working knowledge of IPsec on various Cisco routing and switching platforms. It provides the foundation necessary to understand the different components of Cisco IPsec implementation and how it can be successfully implemented in a variety of network topologies and markets (service provider, enterprise, financial, government). This book views IPsec as an emerging requirement in most major vertical markets, explaining the need for increased information authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation for secure transmission of confidential data. The book is written using a layered approach, starting with basic explanations of why IPsec was developed and the types of organizations relying on IPsec to secure data transmissions. It then outlines the basic IPsec/ISAKMP fundamentals that were developed to meet demand for secure data transmission. The book covers the design and implementation of IPsec VPN architectures using an array of Cisco products, starting with basic concepts and proceeding to more advanced topics including high availability solutions and public key infrastructure (PKI). Sample topology diagrams and configuration examples are provided in each chapter to reinforce the fundamentals expressed in text and to assist readers in translating concepts into practical deployment scenarios. Additionally, comprehensive case studies are incorporated throughout to map topics to real-world solutions.

  • Table of Contents



    Part I   Introductory Concepts and Configuration/Troubleshooting

    Chapter 1        Introduction to VPN Technologies

    VPN Overview of Common Terms

    Characteristics of an Effective VPN

    VPN Technologies

    Virtual Private Dialup Networks  

    Multiprotocol Label Switching VPNs  

    IPsec VPNs  

    Transport Layer VPNs  

    Common VPN Deployments  

    Site-to-Site VPNs  

    Remote Access VPNs  

    Business Drivers for VPNs  

    Remote Access VPN Business Drivers–A Practical Example  

    Site-to-Site VPN Business Drivers–A Practical Example  

    IPsec VPNs and the Cisco Security Framework  


    Chapter 2        IPsec Fundamentals  

    Overview of Cryptographic Components  

    Asymmetric Encryption  

    Symmetric Encryption  

    Message Authentication, Message Integrity, and Sender Nonrepudiation Mechanisms  

    Public Key Encryption Methods  

    RSA Public-Key Technologies  

    Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange  

    The IP Security Protocol (IPsec)  

    IPsec Modes  

    IPsec Transforms  

    IPsec SA  

    IPsec Configuration Elements  

    Manual Keying  

    The Need for Security Association and Key Management  

    IKE and ISAKMP  

    IKE and ISAKMP Terminology and Background  

    IKE SA Negotiation and Maintenance  

    IPsec Diffie-Hellman Shared Secret Key Generation Using IKE  

    IKE Authentication Services  

    IKE Phase I Negotiation  

    IKE Phase II Negotiation  

    Configuring ISAKMP  

    IKE with RAVPN Extensions  


    Chapter 3        Basic IPsec VPN Topologies and Configurations  

    Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Deployments  

    Site-to-Site VPN Architectural Overview for a Dedicated Circuit  

    Site-to-Site Architectural Overview over a Routed Domain  

    Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Deployments and GRE (IPsec+GRE)  

    Site-to-Site IPsec+GRE Architectural Overview  

    Site-to-Site IPsec+GRE Sample Configurations  

    Hub-and-Spoke IPsec VPN Deployments  

    Hub-and-Spoke Architectural Overview  

    Standard Hub-and-Spoke Design without High Availability  

    Clustered Spoke Design to Redundant Hubs  

    Redundant Clustered Spoke Design to Redundant Hubs  

    Remote Access VPN Deployments  

    RAVPN Architectural Overview  

    RAVPN Clients  

    Standalone VPN Concentrator Designs  

    Clustered VPN Concentrator Designs  


    Chapter 4        Common IPsec VPN Issues  

    IPsec Diagnostic Tools within Cisco IOS  

    Common Configuration Issues with IPsec VPNs  

    IKE SA Proposal Mismatches  

    IKE Authentication Failures and Errors  

    IPsec SA Proposal Mismatches  

    Crypto-Protected Address Space Issues (Crypto ACL Errors)  

    Architectural and Design Issues with IPsec VPNs  

    Troubleshooting IPsec VPNs in Firewalled Environments  

    NAT Issues in IPsec VPN Designs  

    The Influence of IPsec on Traffic Flows Requiring QoS  

    Solving Fragmentation Issues in IPsec VPNs  

    The Effect of Recursive Routing on IPsec VPNs  


    Part II     Designing VPN Architectures  

    Chapter 5        Designing for High Availability  

    Network and Path Redundancy  

    IPSec Tunnel Termination Redundancy  

    Multiple Physical Interface HA with Highly Available Tunnel Termination Interfaces  

    Tunnel Termination HA Using HSRP/VRRP Virtual Interfaces  

    HA with Multiple Peer Statements  

    RP-based IPSec HA  

    Managing Peer and Path Availability  

    Peer Availability  

    Path Availability  

    Managing Path Symmetry  

    Load Balancing, Load Sharing, and High Availability  

    Load-Sharing with Peer Statements  


    Domain Name System (DNS)  

    Cisco VPN3000 Concentrator Clustering  

    IPSec Session Load-Balancing Using External Load Balancers  


    Chapter 6        Solutions for Local Site-to-Site High Availability  

    Using Multiple Crypto Interfaces for High Availability  

    Impact of Routing Protocol Reconvergence on IPsec Reconvergence  

    Impact of Stale SAs on IPsec Reconvergence  

    Impact of IPsec and ISAKMP SA Renegotiation on IPsec Reconvergence  

    Stateless IPsec VPN High-Availability Alternatives  

    Solution Overview for Stateless IPsec High Availability  

    Stateless High Availability Failover Process  

    Stateful IPsec VPN High-Availability Alternatives  

    Solution Overview for Stateful IPsec High Availability  

    Stateful High Availability Failover Process  


    Stateless IPsec VPN High Availability Design Summary  

    Stateful IPsec VPN High Availability Design Summary  

    Chapter 7        Solutions for Geographic Site-to-Site High Availability  

    Geographic IPsec VPN HA with Reverse Route Injection and Multiple IPsec Peers  

    Solution Overview for RRI with Multiple IPsec Peers  

    Geographic IPsec VPN High Availability with IPsec+GRE and Encrypted Routing


    Solution Overview for IPsec+GRE with Encrypted Routing Protocols  

    Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Networks  

    DMVPN Solution Design Drivers  

    DMVPN Component-Level Overview and System Operation  


    Chapter 8        Handling Vendor Interoperability with High Availability  

    Vendor Interoperability Impact on Peer Availability  

    The Inability to Specify Multiple Peers  

    Lack of Peer Availability Mechanisms  

    Vendor Interoperability Impact on Path Availability  

    IPSec HA Design Considerations for Platforms with Limited Routing

    Protocol Support  

    IPSec HA Design Considerations for Lack of RRI Support  

    IPSec HA Design Considerations for Lack of Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)


    Vendor Interoperability Design Considerations and Options  

    Phase 1 and 2 SA Lifetime Expiry  

    SADB Management with Quick Mode Delete Notify Messages  

    Invalid Security Parameter Index Recovery  

    Vendor Interoperability with Stateful IPSec HA  


    Chapter 9        Solutions for Remote-Access VPN High Availability  

    IPsec RAVPN Concentrator High Availability Using Virtual Interfaces for Tunnel


    IPsec RAVPN Concentrator High Availability Using VRRP  

    IPsec RAVPN Concentrator HA Using HSRP  

    IPsec RAVPN Concentrator HA Using the VCA Protocol  

    IPsec RAVPN Geographic HA Design Options  

    VPN Concentrator Session Load Balancing Using DNS  

    VPN Concentrator Redundancy Using Multiple Peers  


    Chapter 10      Further Architectural Options for IPsec  

    IPsec VPN Termination On-a-Stick  

    IPsec with Router-on-a-Stick Design Overview  

    Case Study: Small Branch IPsec VPN Tunnel Termination with NAT On-a-Stick  

    In-Path Versus Out-of-Path Encryption with IPsec  

    Out-of-Path Encryption Design Overview  

    Case Study: Firewalled Site-to-Site IPsec VPN Tunnel Termination  

    Separate Termination of IPsec and GRE (GRE-Offload)  

    GRE-Offload Design Overview  

    Case Study: Large-Scale IPsec VPN Tunnel Termination with GRE Offload  


    Part III     Advanced Topics  

    Chapter 11      Public Key Infrastructure and IPsec VPNs  

    PKI Background  

    PKI Components  

    Public Key Certificates  

    Registration Authorities  

    Certificate Revocation Lists and CRL Issuers  

    Certificate Authorities  

    PKI Cryptographic Endpoints  

    Life of a Public Key Certificate  

    RSA Signatures and X.509v3 Certificates  

    Generating Asymmetric Keypairs on Cryptographic Endpoints  

    Registration and Endpoint Authentication  

    Receipt and Authentication of the CA’s Certificate  

    Forwarding and Signing of Public Keys  

    Obtaining and Using Public Key Certificates  

    PKI and the IPSec Protocol Suite–Where PKI Fits into the IPSec model  

    OCSP and CRL Scalability  


    Case Studies and Sample Configurations  

    Case Study 1: PKI Integration of Cryptographic Endpoints  

    Case Study 2: PKI with CA and RA  

    Case Study 3: PKI with Redundant CAs (CA Hierarchy)  


    Chapter 12      Solutions for Handling Dynamically Addressed Peers  

    Dynamic Crypto Maps  

    Dynamic Crypto Map Impact on VPN Behavior  

    Dynamic Crypto Map Configuration and Verification  

    Tunnel Endpoint Discovery  

    TED Configuration and Verification  

    Case Study–Using Dynamic Addressing with Low-Maintenance Small Home Office



    Appendix A Resources  



    Web and Other Resources  


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