If you want to maximize your earning potential, you must start the negotiation process early. Don't wait until the offer is laid on the table to develop a clear idea of what you want and how you will get there.
When you are entry level, this is a little more difficult. However, the seasoned professional should have a good idea as to his worth and what the market will bear.
Starting early means placing the compensation package on the table during the interview process. You don't have to get into particulars immediately. However, expect that the subject will come up at any time, and be ready to address it.
The employer might have provided a salary range up front, giving you an idea of what the company wants to pay. Although this is an indicator of where the employer wants to go, it is not set in stone.
Even large corporations, which are traditionally less flexible when it comes to altering job requirements or salary ranges, can make adjustments if the talent warrants it.
Don't let a salary range that seems low keep you from either applying or speaking to the company. You might find, during discussions, that the company simply does not know what the market will bear for good talent. The company's low salary range might even keep others with your level of experience from applying.
If you have extensive experience, you will have little competition in the pool of talent. This will work to your favor.
I'm not saying that the company will alter its salary range. It might not. However, I have seen companies create new positions when the right talent is on the scene. In addition, remember the idea of building your network of contacts.
If you have impressed the management at a company, even if the company chooses not to hire you, you now have an additional source of referrals to other companies.