An IPSec transform specifies a single IPSec security protocol (either AH or ESP) with its corresponding security algorithms and mode. Example transforms include the following:
The AH protocol with the HMAC with MD5 authentication algorithm in tunnel mode is used for authentication.
The ESP protocol with the triple DES (3DES) encryption algorithm in transport mode is used for confidentiality of data.
The ESP protocol with the 56-bit DES encryption algorithm and the HMAC with SHA-1 authentication algorithm in tunnel mode is used for authentication and confidentiality.
A transform set is a combination of individual IPSec transforms designed to enact a specific security policy for traffic. During the ISAKMP IPSec security association negotiation that occurs in IKE phase 2 quick mode, the peers agree to use a particular transform set for protecting a particular data flow. Transform sets combine the following IPSec factors:
Mechanism for payload authenticationAH transform
Mechanism for payload encryptionESP transform
IPSec mode (transport versus tunnel)
Transform sets equal a combination of an AH transform, plus an ESP transform, plus the IPSec mode (either tunnel or transport mode).
This brings us to the end of the second part of this five-part series of articles covering IPSec. Be sure to catch the next installment.