Home > Articles > Cisco Network Technology > Network Administration & Support > Structuring and Modularizing the Network with Cisco Enterprise Architecture

Structuring and Modularizing the Network with Cisco Enterprise Architecture

  • Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
  • Date: Jun 12, 2008.

Chapter Description

This chapter introduces a modular hierarchical approach to network design, the Cisco Enterprise Architecture.

Using a Modular Approach to Network Design

This section expands on the Cisco Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) framework described in Chapter 2 and explores the six modules of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture, with an emphasis on the network infrastructure design considerations.

The modularity built into the architecture allows flexibility in network design and facilitates implementation and troubleshooting. Before the details of the architecture itself are introduced, an overview of the evolution of enterprise networks is provided.

Evolution of Enterprise Networks

You do not have to go far back in history to find a time when networks were primarily used for file and print services. These networks were isolated LANs that were built throughout the enterprise organization. As organizations interconnected, these isolated LANs and their functions grew from file and print services to include critical applications; the critical nature and complexity of the enterprise networks also grew.

As discussed in the previous section, Cisco introduced the hierarchical model to divide the enterprise network design (separately for both campus and WAN networks) into the access, distribution, and core layers. This solution has several weaknesses, especially for large networks, which are difficult to implement, manage, and, particularly, troubleshoot. Networks became complex, and it was difficult to evaluate a network solution end-to-end through the network. The hierarchical model does not scale well to these large networks.

An efficient method of solving and scaling a complex task is to break it into smaller, more specialized tasks. Networks can easily be broken down smaller because they have natural physical, logical, and functional boundaries. If they are sufficiently large to require additional design or operational separation, these specialized functional modules can then be designed hierarchically with the access, distribution, and core layers.

The Cisco Enterprise Architecture does just that: It reduces the enterprise network into further physical, logical, and functional boundaries, to scale the hierarchical model. Now, rather than designing networks using only the hierarchical model, networks can be designed using this Cisco Enterprise Architecture, with hierarchy (access, distribution, and core) included in the various modules, as required.

Designing with this Cisco Enterprise Architecture is not much different from what is already used in practice; it formalizes current practice. There have always been separate hierarchies for the campus (with access, distribution, and core) and for the WAN (the remote office was the access layer, the regional office provided the distribution layer, and the headquarters was the core). The hierarchies tied together at the campus backbone. The Cisco Enterprise Architecture extends the concept of hierarchy from the original two modules: Campus and WAN.

Cisco SONA Framework

As illustrated in Figure 3-8, the Cisco SONA provides an enterprise-wide framework that integrates the entire network—campus, data center, enterprise edge, WAN, branches, and teleworkers—offering staff secure access to the tools, processes, and services they require.

Figure 3-8

Figure 3-8 Cisco SONA Framework

The modules of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture represent focused views of each of the places in the network described in the SONA framework. Each module has a distinct network infrastructure and distinct services; network applications extend between the modules.

Functional Areas of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture

At the first layer of modularity in the Cisco Enterprise Architecture, the entire network is divided into functional components—functional areas that contain network modules—while still maintaining the hierarchical concept of the core-distribution-access layers within the network modules as needed.

The Cisco Enterprise Architecture comprises the following six major functional areas (also called modules):

  • Enterprise Campus
  • Enterprise Edge
  • Service Provider
  • Enterprise Branch
  • Enterprise Data Center
  • Enterprise Teleworker

Figure 3-9 illustrates the modules within the Cisco Enterprise Architecture.

Figure 3-9

Figure 3-9 Cisco Enterprise Architecture

The Cisco Enterprise Campus Architecture combines a core infrastructure of intelligent switching and routing with tightly integrated productivity-enhancing technologies, including Cisco Unified Communications, mobility, and advanced security. The architecture provides the enterprise with high availability through a resilient multilayer design, redundant hardware and software features, and automatic procedures for reconfiguring network paths when failures occur. IP multicast capabilities provide optimized bandwidth consumption, and QoS features ensure that real-time traffic (such as voice, video, or critical data) is not dropped or delayed. Integrated security protects against and mitigates the impact of worms, viruses, and other attacks on the network, including at the switch port level. For example, the Cisco enterprise-wide architecture extends support for security standards, such as the IEEE 802.1X port-based network access control standard and the Extensible Authentication Protocol. It also provides the flexibility to add Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) and MPLS virtual private networks (VPN), identity and access management, and VLANs to compartmentalize access. These features help improve performance and security while decreasing costs.

The Cisco Enterprise Edge Architecture offers connectivity to voice, video, and data services outside the enterprise. This module enables the enterprise to use Internet and partner resources, and provide resources for its customers. QoS, service levels, and security are the main issues in the Enterprise Edge.

The Cisco Enterprise WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN module is part of the Enterprise Edge. It offers the convergence of voice, video, and data services over a single Cisco Unified Communications network, which enables the enterprise to span large geographic areas in a cost-effective manner. QoS, granular service levels, and comprehensive encryption options help ensure the secure delivery of high-quality corporate voice, video, and data resources to all corporate sites, enabling staff to work productively and efficiently wherever they are located. Security is provided with multiservice VPNs (both IPsec and MPLS) over Layer 2 or Layer 3 WANs, hub-and-spoke, or full-mesh topologies.

The Cisco Enterprise Data Center Architecture is a cohesive, adaptive network architecture that supports requirements for consolidation, business continuance, and security while enabling emerging service-oriented architectures, virtualization, and on-demand computing. Staff, suppliers, and customers can be provided with secure access to applications and resources, simplifying and streamlining management and significantly reducing overhead. Redundant data centers provide backup using synchronous and asynchronous data and application replication. The network and devices offer server and application load balancing to maximize performance. This architecture allows the enterprise to scale without major changes to the infrastructure. This module can be located either at the campus as a server farm or at a remote facility.

The Cisco Enterprise Branch Architecture allows enterprises to extend head-office applications and services (such as security, Cisco Unified Communications, and advanced application performance) to thousands of remote locations and users or to a small group of branches. Cisco integrates security, switching, network analysis, caching, and converged voice and video services into a series of integrated services routers (ISR) in the branch so that the enterprises can deploy new services without buying new routers. This architecture provides secure access to voice, mission-critical data, and video applications—anywhere, anytime. Advanced routing, VPNs, redundant WAN links, application content caching, and local IP telephony call processing features are available with high levels of resilience for all the branch offices. An optimized network leverages the WAN and LAN to reduce traffic and save bandwidth and operational expenses. The enterprise can easily support branch offices with the capability to centrally configure, monitor, and manage devices located at remote sites, including tools, such as Cisco AutoQoS and the Cisco Router and Security Device Manager graphical user interface QoS wizard, which proactively resolve congestion and bandwidth issues before they affect network performance.

The Cisco Enterprise Teleworker Architecture allows enterprises to securely deliver voice and data services to remote small or home offices (known as small office, home office [SOHO]) over a standard broadband access service, providing a business-resiliency solution for the enterprise and a flexible work environment for employees. Centralized management minimizes the IT support costs, and robust integrated security mitigates the unique security challenges of this environment. Integrated security and identity-based networking services enable the enterprise to extend campus security policies to the teleworker. Staff can securely log in to the network over an always-on VPN and gain access to authorized applications and services from a single cost-effective platform. Productivity can be further enhanced by adding an IP phone, thereby providing cost-effective access to a centralized IP communications system with voice and unified messaging services.

This architecture allows network designers to focus on only a selected module and its functions. Designers can describe each network application and service on a per-module basis and validate each as part of the complete enterprise network design. Modules can be added to achieve scalability if necessary; for example, an organization can add more Enterprise Campus modules if it has more than one campus.

Guidelines for Creating an Enterprise Network

When creating an Enterprise network, divide the network into appropriate areas, where the Enterprise Campus includes all devices and connections within the main Campus location; the Enterprise Edge covers all communications with remote locations and the Internet from the perspective of the Enterprise Campus; and the remote modules include the remote branches, teleworkers, and the remote data center. Define clear boundaries between each of the areas.

Figure 3-10 shows an example of dividing a network into an Enterprise Campus area, an Enterprise Edge area, and some remote areas.

Figure 3-10

Figure 3-10 Sample Network Divided into Functional Areas

The following sections provide additional details about each of the functional areas and their modules.

Enterprise Campus Modules

This section introduces the Enterprise Campus functional area and describes the purpose of each module therein. It also discusses connections with other modules.

An enterprise campus site is a large site that is often the corporate headquarters or a major office. Regional offices, SOHOs, and mobile workers might have to connect to the central campus for data and information. As illustrated in Figure 3-11, the Enterprise Campus functional area includes the Campus Infrastructure module and, typically, a Server Farm module.

Figure 3-11

Figure 3-11 Enterprise Campus Functional Area

Campus Infrastructure Module

The Campus Infrastructure design consists of several buildings connected across a Campus Core. The Campus Infrastructure module connects devices within a campus to the Server Farm and Enterprise Edge modules. A single building in a Campus Infrastructure design contains a Building Access layer and a Building Distribution layer. When more buildings are added to the Campus Infrastructure, a backbone or Campus Core layer is added between buildings. The Campus Infrastructure module includes three layers:

  • The Building Access layer
  • The Building Distribution layer
  • The Campus Core layer

Building Access Layer

The Building Access layer, located within a campus building, aggregates end users from different workgroups and provides uplinks to the Building Distribution layer. It contains end-user devices such as workstations, Cisco IP phones, and networked printers, connected to Layer 2 access switches; VLANs and STP might also be supported. The Building Access layer provides important services, such as broadcast suppression, protocol filtering, network access, IP multicast, and QoS. For high availability, the access switches are dual-attached to the distribution layer switches. The Building Access layer might also provide Power over Ethernet (PoE) and auxiliary VLANs to support voice services.

Building Distribution Layer

The Building Distribution layer aggregates the wiring closets within a building and provides connectivity to the Campus Core layer. It provides aggregation of the access layer networks using multilayer switching. The Building Distribution layer performs routing, QoS, and access control. Requests for data flow into the multilayer switches and onward into the Campus Core layer; responses follow the reverse path. Redundancy and load balancing with the Building Access and Campus Core layer are recommended. For example, in Figure 3-11, the Building Distribution layer has two equal-cost paths into the Campus Core layer, providing fast failure recovery because each distribution switch maintains two equal-cost paths in its routing table to every destination network. If one connection to the Campus Core layer fails, all routes immediately switch over to the remaining path.

Campus Core Layer

The Campus Core layer is the core layer of the Campus Infrastructure module. Within the Enterprise Campus functional area, this high-performance, switched backbone connects the buildings and various parts of the campus. Specifically, this layer interconnects the Building Distribution layer with the Server Farm and the Enterprise Edge modules.

The Campus Core layer of the Campus Infrastructure module provides redundant and fast-converging connectivity between buildings and with the Server Farm and Enterprise Edge modules. It routes and switches traffic as quickly as possible from one module to another. This module usually uses multilayer switches for high-throughput functions with added routing, QoS, and security features.

Server Farm Module

A high-capacity, centralized server farm module provides users with internal server resources. In addition, it typically supports network management services for the enterprise, including monitoring, logging, and troubleshooting, and other common management features from end to end.

The Server Farm module typically contains internal e-mail and other corporate servers that provide internal users with application, file, print, e-mail, and Domain Name System (DNS) services. As shown in Figure 3-11, because access to these servers is vital, as a best practice, they are typically connected to two different switches to enable full redundancy or load sharing. Moreover, the Server Farm module switches are cross-connected with the Campus Core layer switches, thereby enabling high reliability and availability of all servers in the Server Farm module.

The network management system performs system logging, network monitoring, and general configuration management functions. For management purposes, an out-of-band network connection (a network on which no production traffic travels) to all network components is recommended. For locations where an out-of-band network is impossible (because of geographic or system-related issues), the network management system uses the production network.

Network management can provide configuration management for nearly all devices in the network, using a combination of the following two technologies:

  • Cisco IOS routers can act as terminal servers to provide a dedicated management network segment to the console ports on the Cisco devices throughout the enterprise by using a reverse-Telnet function.
  • More extensive management features (software changes, content updates, log and alarm aggregation, and Simple Network Management Protocol [SNMP] management) can be provided through the dedicated out-of-band management network segment.

Enterprise Campus Guidelines

Follow these guidelines for creating the modules within an Enterprise Campus functional area:

  • Step 1 Select modules within the campus that act as buildings with access and distribution layers.
  • Step 2 Determine the locations and the number of access switches and their uplinks to distribution layer switches.
  • Step 3 Select the appropriate distribution layer switches, taking into account the number of access layer switches and end users. Use at least two distribution layer switches for redundancy.
  • Step 4 Consider two uplink connections from each access layer switch to the two distribution layer switches.
  • Step 5 Determine where servers are or will be located, and design the Server Farm module with at least two distribution layer switches that connect all servers for full redundancy. Include out-of-band network management connections to all critical devices in the campus network.
  • Step 6 Design the Campus Infrastructure module's Campus Core layer using at least two switches and provide for the expected traffic volume between modules.
  • Step 7 Interconnect all modules of the Enterprise Campus with the Campus Infrastructure module's Campus Core layer in a redundant manner.

Enterprise Edge Modules

This section describes the components of the Enterprise Edge and explains the importance of each module. The Enterprise Edge infrastructure modules aggregate the connectivity from the various elements outside the campus—using various services and WAN technologies as needed, typically provisioned from service providers—and route the traffic into the Campus Core layer. The Enterprise Edge modules perform security functions when enterprise resources connect across public networks and the Internet. As shown in Figure 3-12 and in the following list, the Enterprise Edge functional area is composed of four main modules:

  • E-commerce module: The E-commerce module includes the devices and services necessary for an organization to provide e-commerce applications.
  • Internet Connectivity module: The Internet Connectivity module provides enterprise users with Internet access.
  • Remote Access and VPN module: This module terminates VPN traffic and dial-in connections from external users.
  • WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN module: This module provides connectivity between remote sites and the central site over various WAN technologies.
Figure 3-12

Figure 3-12 Enterprise Edge Functional Area

These modules connect to the Campus Core directly or through an optional Edge Distribution module. The optional Edge Distribution module aggregates the connectivity from the various elements at the enterprise edge and routes the traffic into the Campus Core layer. In addition, the Edge Distribution module acts as a boundary between the Enterprise Campus and the Enterprise Edge and is the last line of defense against external attacks; its structure is similar to that of the Building Distribution layer.

The following sections detail each of the four main Enterprise Edge modules.

E-commerce Module

The E-commerce module enables enterprises to successfully deploy e-commerce applications and take advantage of the opportunities the Internet provides. The majority of traffic is initiated external to the enterprise. All e-commerce transactions pass through a series of intelligent services that provide scalability, security, and high availability within the overall e-commerce network design. To build a successful e-commerce solution, the following network devices might be included:

  • Web servers: Act as the primary user interface for e-commerce navigation
  • Application servers: Host the various applications
  • Database servers: Contain the application and transaction information that is the heart of the e-commerce business implementation
  • Firewalls or firewall routers: Govern communication and provide security between the system's various users
  • Network Intrusion Detection System/Network Intrusion Protection System (NIDS/NIPS) appliances: Monitor key network segments in the module to detect and respond to attacks against the network
  • Multilayer switch with Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Protection System (IDS/IPS) modules: Provide traffic transport and integrated security monitoring
  • Host-Based Intrusion Protection Systems: Deployed on sensitive core application servers and on dedicated appliances to provide real-time reporting and prevention of attacks as an extra layer of defense

Internet Connectivity Module

The Internet Connectivity module provides internal users with connectivity to Internet services, such as HTTP, FTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and DNS. This module also provides Internet users with access to information published on an enterprise's public servers, such as HTTP and FTP servers. Internet session initiation is typically from inside the enterprise toward the Internet. Additionally, this module accepts VPN traffic from remote users and remote sites and forwards it to the Remote Access and VPN module, where VPN termination takes place. The Internet Connectivity module is not designed to serve e-commerce applications. Major components used in the Internet Connectivity module include the following:

  • SMTP mail servers: Act as a relay between the Internet and the intranet mail servers.
  • DNS servers: Serve as the authoritative external DNS server for the enterprise and relay internal DNS requests to the Internet.
  • Public servers (for example, FTP and HTTP): Provide public information about the organization. Each server on the public services segment contains host-based intrusion detection systems (HIDS) to monitor against any rogue activity at the operating system level and in common server applications including HTTP, FTP, and SMTP.
  • Firewalls or firewall routers: Provide network-level protection of resources, provide stateful filtering of traffic, and forward VPN traffic from remote sites and users for termination.
  • Edge routers: Provide basic filtering and multilayer connectivity to the Internet.

Remote Access and VPN Module

The Remote Access and VPN module terminates remote access traffic and VPN traffic that the Internet Connectivity Module forwards from remote users and remote sites. It also uses the Internet Connectivity module to initiate VPN connections to remote sites. Furthermore, the module terminates dial-in connections received through the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and, after successful authentication, grants dial-in users access to the network. Major components used in the Remote Access and VPN module include the following:

  • Dial-in access concentrators: Terminate dial-in connections and authenticate individual users
  • Cisco Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA): Terminate IPsec tunnels, authenticate individual remote users, and provide firewall and intrusion prevention services
  • Firewalls: Provide network-level protection of resources and stateful filtering of traffic, provide differentiated security for remote access users, authenticate trusted remote sites, and provide connectivity using IPsec tunnels
  • NIDS appliances: Provide Layer 4 to Layer 7 monitoring of key network segments in the module

WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN Module

The WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN module uses various WAN technologies, including site-to-site VPNs, to route traffic between remote sites and the central site. In addition to traditional media (such as leased lines) and circuit-switched data-link technologies (such as Frame Relay and ATM), this module can use more recent WAN physical layer technologies, including Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), cable, DSL, MPLS, Metro Ethernet, wireless, and service provider VPNs. This module incorporates all Cisco devices that support these WAN technologies, and routing, access control, and QoS mechanisms. Although security is not as critical when all links are owned by the enterprise, it should be considered in the network design.

Enterprise Edge Guidelines

Follow these guidelines for creating the modules within the Enterprise Edge functional area:

  • Step 1 Create the E-commerce module (for business-to-business or business-to-customer scenarios) when customers or partners require Internet access to business applications and database servers. Deploy a high-security policy that allows customers to access predefined servers and services yet restricts all other operations.
  • Step 2 Determine the connections from the corporate network into the Internet, and assign them to the Internet Connectivity module. This module should implement security to prevent any unauthorized access from the Internet to the internal network. Public web servers reside in this module or the E-commerce module.
  • Step 3 Design the Remote Access and VPN module if the enterprise requires VPN connections or dial-in for accessing the internal network from the outside world. Implement a security policy in this module; users should not be able to access the internal network directly without authentication and authorization. The VPN sessions use connectivity from the Internet Connectivity module.
  • Step 4 Determine which part of the edge is used exclusively for permanent connections to remote locations (such as branch offices), and assign it to the WAN and MAN and Site-to-Site VPN module. All WAN devices supporting Frame Relay, ATM, cable, MPLS, leased lines, SONET/SDH, and so on, are located here.

Service Provider Modules

Figure 3-13 shows the modules within the Service Provider functional area. The enterprise itself does not implement these modules; however, they are necessary to enable communication with other networks, using a variety of WAN technologies, and with Internet service providers (ISP). The modules within the Service Provider functional area are as follows:

  • Internet Service Provider module
  • PSTN module
  • Frame Relay/ATM module
Figure 3-13

Figure 3-13 Service Provider Functional Area

The following sections describe each of these modules.

Internet Service Provider Module

The Internet Service Provider module represents enterprise IP connectivity to an ISP network for basic access to the Internet or for enabling Enterprise Edge services, such as those in the E-commerce, Remote Access and VPN, and Internet Connectivity modules. Enterprises can connect to two or more ISPs to provide redundant connections to the Internet. The physical connection between the ISP and the enterprise can use any of the WAN technologies.

PSTN Module

The PSTN module represents the dialup infrastructure for accessing the enterprise network using ISDN, analog, and wireless telephony (cellular) technologies. Enterprises can also use this infrastructure to back up existing WAN links; WAN backup connections are generally established on demand and torn down after an idle timeout.

Frame Relay/ATM Module

Traditional Frame Relay and ATM are still used; however, despite the module's name, it also represents many modern technologies. The technologies in this module include the following:

  • Frame Relay is a connection-oriented, packet-switching technology designed to efficiently transmit data traffic at data rates of up to those used by E3 and T3 connections. Its capability to connect multiple remote sites across a single physical connection reduces the number of point-to-point physical connections required to link sites.
  • ATM is a higher-speed alternative to Frame Relay. It is a high-performance, cell-oriented, switching and multiplexing technology for carrying different types of traffic.
  • Leased lines provide the simplest permanent point-to-point connection between two remote locations. The carrier (service provider) reserves point-to-point links for the customer's private use. Because the connection does not carry anyone else's communications, the carrier can ensure a given level of quality. The fee for the connection is typically a fixed monthly rate.
  • SONET/SDH are standards for transmission over optical networks. Europe uses SDH, whereas North America uses SONET.
  • Cable technology uses existing coaxial cable TV cables. Coupled with cable modems, this technology provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines and can be used to achieve extremely fast access to the Internet or enterprise network.
  • DSL uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data, such as voice, data, and video. DSL is sometimes referred to as last-mile technology because it is used only for connections from a telephone switching station (at a service provider) to a home or office, not between switching stations. DSL is used by telecommuters to access enterprise networks; however, more and more companies are migrating from traditional Frame Relay to DSL technology using VPNs because of its cost efficiency.
  • Wireless bridging technology interconnects remote LANs using point-to-point signal transmissions that go through the air over a terrestrial radio or microwave platform, rather than through copper or fiber cables. Wireless bridging requires neither satellite feeds nor local phone service. One of the advantages of bridged wireless is its capability to connect users in remote areas without having to install new cables. However, this technology is limited to shorter distances, and weather conditions can degrade its performance.
  • MPLS combines the advantages of multilayer routing with the benefits of Layer 2 switching. With MPLS, labels are assigned to each packet at the edge of the network. Rather than examining the IP packet header information, MPLS nodes use this label to determine how to process the data, resulting in a faster, more scalable, and more flexible WAN solution.

Remote Enterprise Modules

The three modules supporting remote enterprise locations are the Enterprise Branch, the Enterprise Data Center, and the Enterprise Teleworker.

Enterprise Branch Module

The Enterprise Branch module extends the enterprise by providing each location with a resilient network architecture with integrated security, Cisco Unified Communications, and wireless mobility.

A branch office generally accommodates employees who have a compelling reason to be located away from the central site, such as a regional sales office. A branch office is sometimes called a remote site, remote office, or sales office. Branch office users must be able to connect to the central site to access company information. Therefore, they benefit from high-speed Internet access, VPN connectivity to corporate intranets, telecommuting capabilities for work-at-home employees, videoconferencing, and economical PSTN-quality voice and fax calls over managed IP networks. The Enterprise Branch module typically uses a simplified version of the Campus Infrastructure module design.

Enterprise Data Center Module

The Enterprise Data Center module has an architecture that is similar to the campus Server Farm module discussed earlier. The Enterprise Data Center network architecture allows the network to evolve into a platform that enhances the application, server, and storage solutions and equips organizations to manage increased security, cost, and regulatory requirements while providing the ability to respond quickly to changing business environments. The Enterprise Data Center module may include the following components:

  • At the networked infrastructure layer: Gigabit Ethernet, 10-Gigabit Ethernet, or InfiniBand connections, with storage switching and optical transport devices
  • At the interactive services layer: Services include storage fabric services, computer services, security services, and application optimization services
  • At the management layer: Tools include Fabric Manager (for element and network management) and Cisco VFrame (for server and service provisioning)

The remote Enterprise Data Center module also needs highly available WAN connectivity with business continuance capabilities to integrate it with the rest of the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. The Server Farm module in the campus can leverage the WAN connectivity of the campus core, but the remote Enterprise Data Center must implement its own WAN connectivity.

Enterprise Teleworker Module

The Enterprise Teleworker module provides people in geographically dispersed locations, such as home offices or hotels, with highly secure access to central-site applications and network services.

The Enterprise Teleworker module supports a small office with one to several employees or the home office of a telecommuter. Telecommuters might also be mobile users—people who need access while traveling or who do not work at a fixed company site.

Depending on the amount of use and the WAN services available, telecommuters working from home tend to use broadband or dialup services. Mobile users tend to access the company network using a broadband Internet service and the VPN client software on their laptops or via an asynchronous dialup connection through the telephone company. Telecommuters working from home might also use a VPN tunnel gateway router for encrypted data and voice traffic to and from the company intranet. These solutions provide simple and safe access for teleworkers to the corporate network site, according to the needs of the users at the sites.

The Cisco Teleworker solution provides an easy-to-deploy, centrally managed solution that addresses both the workers' mobility needs and the enterprise's needs for lower operational costs, security, productivity, business resiliency, and business responsiveness. Small ISRs form the backbone of the Enterprise Teleworker architecture. An optional IP phone can be provided to take advantage of a centralized Cisco Unified Communications system.

3. Services Within Modular Networks | Next Section Previous Section

Cisco Press Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Cisco Press and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Cisco Press products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@ciscopress.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.ciscopress.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020