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Deploying a Fast and Stable Wireless Mesh Network

  • Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
  • Date: Dec 9, 2009.

Chapter Description

This chapter provides practical tips and advice for deploying a fast and stable wireless mesh network.

Troubleshooting Mesh

Mesh deployments add an extra level of complexity to troubleshooting because the connection between the MAPs and the controller is wireless. The MAPs need to have good signal strength to their parent AP. You do not want the SNR up and SNR down to differ by more than 10 dTS. The Fresnel zone between the APs also needs to be clear to prevent obstructions from interfering with the connection. You want to make sure that the APs are mounted correctly according to the installation guides and have similar heights. Mesh APs can transmit as far as 25 miles, so depending on the distance between them and the type of antenna, you might need to use a laser or other professional alignment tool.

AP Join Problems

Just like any controller-based AP, mesh APs have to be joined to a controller before they can start to service clients. Before the mesh network can come up, you need to have at least one RAP with a wired connection to the controller. After the RAP is joined, the MAPs can start to join the controller through the 802.11a radio of the RAP.

To troubleshoot mesh AP join issues, you can use the standard LWAPP/CAPWAP debugs on the controller that you would use for a non-MAP such as a 1242. In addition to those debugs, you can run the following debugs on the controller:

  • debug mesh security events enable
  • debug mesh security message enable
  • debug dot1x events enable
  • debug dot1x packet enable

The output of these debugs shows you if you have AP authentication issues. Example 15-2 shows sample output for debug mesh security all. (The all keyword includes events and messages.)

Example 15-2. debug mesh security all Command Output

*May 03 13:36:00.846:  00:1C:B1:07:FA:20 MESH_ASSOC_REQUEST_PAYLOAD in Association
Request for AP 00:0B:85:65:51:60
*May 03 13:36:00.846:  00:1C:B1:07:FA:20 Mesh assoc request for known AP
*May 03 13:36:00.846:  00:1C:B1:07:FA:20 Mesh assoc request :child :
00:0b:85:65:51:60 NextHop : 00:23:5d:f1:9d:41  LradIp  vlanid: 0
mwarPort: 5246  lradPort: 35184
*May 03 13:36:00.846:  00:1C:B1:07:FA:20 Request MAC authorization for AP Child
Addr:  00:0b:85:65:51:60 AP Identity: 00:0b:85:65:51:60 AWPP Identity:
*May 03 13:36:00.847: MAC Validation of Mesh Assoc Request for00:0b:85:65:51:60 is
-4, Mode is : 0
(Cisco Controller) >*May 03 13:36:00.847: MAC authoriztion fail. REsetting MSCB
state for 00:0b:85:65:51:60 to 9

From this output, you can tell that the MAP that is trying to join is failing MAC authorization. The root cause might be a missing or incorrect MAC address in the MAC filter list of the controller or a similar problem on a RADIUS server if you are using Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) to authenticate the APs. The controller traplogs also contain valuable information about any AP join issues:

Mesh Node '00:0b:85:65:51:60' failed to join controller, MAC address not in MAC
filter list

If you have console access to the AP that is not joining the controller (152x and indoor mesh-APs), you can enable the following debugs:

  • debug mesh adjacency
  • debug mesh event
  • debug mesh link

Using these debugs on the MAP closest to the AP that is not joining (the RAP if no MAPs are joining), you can see the adjacencies and events. Example 15-3 shows sample output from debug mesh adjacency and mesh event.

Example 15-3. debug mesh adjacency and debug mesh event Command Output

*May  3 16:54:36.582: ADJ:Processing  child  adjacency  from  001e.1306.f65f  channel  64
*May  3 16:54:36.582: mesh_adj_add_association: client exists 001e.1306.f65f
*May  3 16:54:36.863: mesh_adj_current_backhaul: Dot11Radio1
*May  3 16:56:22.662: ADJ:Child 001e.1306.f65f timed out
*May  3 16:56:22.662: %MESH-6-LINK_UPDOWN: Mesh station 001e.1306.f65f link Down
*May  3 16:56:22.663: MESH_EVENT:mesh_lwapp_link_down: link 001e.1306.f65f
*May  3 16:56:22.665: MESH_EVENT:received mesh_lwapp_handle_request type LINK_DOWN

The sample output in Example 15-3 from a RAP shows the child adjacency timing out and a mesh link down event.

If the mesh APs are not in the same VLAN as the management interface of the controller, be sure to check your discovery methods. Incorrect DHCP options, for example, prevent the APs from learning the correct controller IP. Table 15-1 outlines the correct Vendor Class Identifiers (VCI) for the different outdoor mesh APs should you decide to use DHCP options for controller discovery.

Table 15-1. Outdoor Mesh APs DHCP VCI Strings


Code Release

VCI String

Any 1500


Cisco AP c1500

1500 OAP


Cisco AP.OAP1500



Cisco AP.LAP1505



Cisco AP.LAP1510

Any 1500




4.1M or 5.2

Cisco AP c1520

An interesting behavior for the 1500 series APs with older code is that if they cannot join a controller for an extensive period of time, they can revert to a previously installed image. Therefore, an AP that was running 4.0 code could fall back to a 3.2 image. If this happens, the VCI you had set up would no longer be valid. You would need to get a wired packet capture to determine the VCI string the AP was sending to the DHCP server. The APs no longer exhibit this image fallback behavior in the 4.1 mesh-only releases and higher.

Another mesh behavior that can result in long join times is that, by design, a mesh AP gives precedence to its wired port on bootup if it detects a signal. This is common when using Ethernet bridging. Only after several failed attempts does it try to use the 802.11a radio as the primary backhaul when the Ethernet port is live. To decrease the join time, you can disconnect the device connected to the Ethernet port of the MAP.

Make sure you are using the correct APs for RAPs and MAPs. Although most mesh APs can be a RAP or MAP to a different AP model, the 1505 APs can mesh only with each other.

If you are using BGNs, a blank or incorrect BGN prevents a MAP from staying joined to the controller. If an AP has a blank BGN, it remains joined for approximately 30 minutes before it drops off the network. You need to correct the BGN during this time to prevent it from continuously dropping off the network. Should you ever want to change the BGN or backhaul data rate (not recommended), you should always start with the farthest out MAP to prevent stranding an AP.

RF Issues

Just like the radio frequency (RF) environment can affect wireless clients, it can disrupt a mesh network. High-channel utilization, interference, and radar can wreak havoc on a mesh network.

Wireless radios that operate in the UNII-2 and UNII-2 Extended bands must adhere to Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) and change channels when the AP detects radar on that channel. The controllers automatically enable DFS on 15 channels (52 through 140). If an AP detects radar on the channel it is currently using, it scans for a new channel and waits 60 seconds to make sure no radar is on that channel before it starts using it. An AP avoids trying to use the previous channel for 30 minutes. Even if you hard-code the AP channel and do not use Auto-RF, the AP must change channels when it detects radar.

As demonstrated in Example 15-4, when an AP detects radar and changes channels, it announces the change to any child APs. The radio change event also generates trap logs to let you know why the AP changed channels.

Example 15-4. DFS Radar Event SNMP Trap Log

Mon Feb 9 13:07:00 2009 Channel changed for Base Radio MAC: 00:1d:46:24:43:a0 on
802.11a radio. Old Channel: 60. New Channel: 161. Why:  Radar. Energy
before/after change:
0/0. Noise before/after change: 0/0. Interference before/after change: 0/0.
Mon Feb 9 13:07:00 2009 Radar signals have been detected on channel 60 by 802.11a
radio with MAC: 00:1d:46:24:43:a0 and slot 1

A radar event requires your mesh network to change, which causes outages until the network converges after the channel changes.

Besides radar, you might see poor throughput for various other reasons. Table 15-2 outlines some common RF issues, their cause, and potential resolutions.

Table 15-2. Common RF Symptoms and Resolutions


Possible Causes

Potential Solution

Throughput is low; link test Rx is significantly less than Tx

Tx power is low

Check Tx power level

Antenna alignment is poor

Realign antennas

LOS1 is obstructed or Fresnel zone is not clear

Remove obstruction or raise or move APs/antennas

Throughput is low; link test Rx is significantly higher than Tx

RF has interference

Change radio channel

SNR uplink and downlink are off by 10 dB or more

RF has interference, LOS is obstructed, or hardware is bad

Change radio channel, check LOS, check hardware

The number of hops from a MAP to a RAP is also a factor. With the half-duplex nature of wireless, you are cutting your backhaul rates essentially in half with each hop. For example, the maximum throughput for an 18 Mbps backhaul is approximately 10 Mbps for the first hop, 5 Mbps for the second hop, and 2.5 Mbps for the third hop. Although 8 hops is the backhaul hop limit for outdoor mesh APs, Cisco recommends no more than 4 hops from RAP to MAP.

show Commands

Several show commands are available on the controllers that you can use to see the state of your mesh deployment and help pinpoint a problem area.

Example 15-5 reveals the mesh show commands.

Example 15-5. show mesh Command List

(MeshController) >show mesh ?
env                   Show mesh environment.
neigh                 Show AP neigh list.
path                  Show AP path.
astools               show mesh astools list
stats                 Show AP stats.
secbh-stats           Show Mesh AP secondary backhaul stats.
per-stats             Show AP Neighbor Packet Error Rate stats.
queue-stats           Show AP local queue stats.
security-stats        Show AP security stats.
ap                    Show mesh AP information.
config                Show mesh configurations.
secondary-backhaul    Show mesh secondary-backhaul
client-access         Show mesh backhaul with client access.
public-safety         Show mesh public safety.
background-scanning   Show mesh background-scanning state.
cac                   Show mesh cac.
bhrateadapt           Show Mesh Backhaul Rate Adaptation State.

Example 15-6 shows some sample output from the show mesh neigh summary command.

Example 15-6. show mesh neigh summary Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >show mesh neigh summary 1131
AP Name/Radio Mac  Channel Snr-Up Snr-Down Link-Snr Flags    State
––––––––––––––––-  ––––––- –––––– –––––––– –––––––– ––––––-  ––––-
00:18:74:FB:1E:FF  36      13      13       13        0x860    BEACON
00:1C:F9:05:9D:DF  36      13      13       13        0x860    BEACON
00:1D:A1:CD:DD:6C  64      53      53       53        0x960    CHILD BEACON

With show mesh neigh, you can see the information from any child or parent APs as well as any other surrounding APs the AP hears. Here you can see three neighbors, one of which is a child AP.

To see more detailed information about the neighbors of an AP, use show mesh neigh detail, as demonstrated in Example 15-7.

Example 15-7. show mesh neigh detail Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >show mesh neigh detail 1131
AP MAC : 00:0B:85:65:51:60
worstDv 255, Ant 0, channel 64, biters 0, ppiters 10
Numroutes 0, snr 0, snrUp 13, snrDown 13, linkSnr 13
adjustedEase 0, unadjustedEase 0
txParent 0, rxParent 0
poorSnr  0
lastUpdate   1241358733 (Sun May  3 13:52:13 2009)
parentChange 0
Per antenna smoothed snr values: 0 0 0 0
Vector through 00:0B:85:65:51:60
AP MAC : 00:18:74:FB:1E:FF
worstDv 255, Ant 0, channel 36, biters 0, ppiters 0
Numroutes 0, snr 0, snrUp 13, snrDown 13, linkSnr 13
adjustedEase 0, unadjustedEase 0
txParent 0, rxParent 0
poorSnr  0
lastUpdate   1241358199 (Sun May  3 13:43:19 2009)
parentChange 0
Per antenna smoothed snr values: 0 0 0 0
Vector through 00:18:74:FB:1E:FF
AP MAC : 00:1C:F9:05:9D:DF
worstDv 255, Ant 0, channel 36, biters 0, ppiters 0
Numroutes 0, snr 0, snrUp 13, snrDown 13, linkSnr 13
adjustedEase 0, unadjustedEase 0
txParent 0, rxParent 0
poorSnr  0
lastUpdate   1241358199 (Sun May  3 13:43:19 2009)
parentChange 0
Per antenna smoothed snr values: 0 0 0 0
Vector through 00:1C:F9:05:9D:DF
AP MAC : 00:1D:A1:CD:DD:6C
worstDv 255, Ant 0, channel 64, biters 0, ppiters 0
Numroutes 0, snr 0, snrUp 0, snrDown 0, linkSnr 0
adjustedEase 0, unadjustedEase 0
txParent 0, rxParent 0
poorSnr  0
lastUpdate   1241358245 (Sun May  3 13:44:05 2009)
parentChange 0
Per antenna smoothed snr values: 0 0 0 0
Vector through 00:1D:A1:CD:DD:6C

Using show mesh ap tree, as demonstrated in Example 15-8, you can see the logical parent child mappings, the hop count, the SNR, and the BGN.

Example 15-8. show mesh ap tree Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >show mesh ap tree
||  AP Name [Hop Counter, Link SNR, Bridge Group Name] ||
[Sector 1]
Number of Mesh APs...............................  2
Number of RAPs...................................  1
Number of MAPs...................................  1

As demonstrated in Example 15-9, the show mesh path command displays the path through the mesh network to the AP you specify.

Example 15-9. show mesh path Command Output

 (Cisco Controller) >show mesh path 1242
AP Name/Radio Mac  Channel Snr-Up Snr-Down Link-Snr Flags      State
––––––––––––––––-  ––––––- –––––– –––––––– –––––––– ––––––-    ––––-
1131               64      61     54       51       0x86e      NEIGH PARENT  BEACON
1131               is a Root AP.

This output also displays the channel in use and the SNR values. The MAP 1242 in this case is directly connected to the RAP 1131.

Remote Telnet and AP Debugs

You can gain a wealth of information from running show commands on the MAPs.

For the 1500 series APs, you need to run remote debug commands. To enable remote debugs for an AP, use the following command from the controller CLI:

debug ap enable AP_name

After you enable remote debugging on the AP, you can run debug commands to pull information directly from the AP:

   debug ap command "command" AP_name

Some of the commands you can run on the 1500s are as follows:

  • printRadar(): Displays radar information
  • printBsnRateTable(1): Displays valid radio data rates
  • apCfgRadioChannelGet(0): Displays current radio channel
  • keyShow(0): Displays encryption key entries per radio
  • apPrintForwardList: Displays client transmit statistics
  • sibSmeShow(0): Displays association table
  • sibStationShow(0,3): Displays association table details
  • sibShow(0,3): Displays additional client information
  • sibAgingShow(): Displays queue/frame information per MAC
  • dumpMeshSecBhStats(0): Displays mesh backhaul stats
  • dumpAp(): Displays MAP info
  • dumpAdjs(): Displays mesh adjacencies
  • spamPrintRcb: Displays AP control block information
  • ifShow: Displays interface information and AP IP address
  • bsnPrintCrashData(): Displays AP crash data
  • SpamPrintCfgFile(): Displays current AP configuration

Example 15-10 demonstrates some sample output from debug ap command dumpAdjs().

Example 15-10. debug ap command dumpAdjs()Command Output

(MeshController) >debug ap command "dumpAdjs()" lab5map1510
(MeshController) >Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510: Calling "dumpAdjs" with
args 0x0, 0x0, 0x0, 0x0
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510: ADJ 1 Identity 001b.d4a6.f3e4 MA: 001c.0e
75.240f version 0x20 Error/10K txpkts 6181
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510: Flags: CHILD BEACON
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Minor ver: 32, worstDv 255 Ant 0, channe
l 0, biters 0, ppiters 10
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Numroutes 0, snr 0, snrUp 8 snrDown 0 li
nkSnr 0 blistExp 3 bliters 0
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  adjustedEase 0 unadjustedEase 0 txParent
0 rxParent 0
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Secondary backhaul channel: 0 BGN  Last
exclusion cause:0
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Vector through 001c.0e75.240f:
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Per antenna smoothed snr values: 0 0 0 0
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Subordinate neighbors: 001b.d4a6.f3e4
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510:  Time since last update: 0 Days, 00:00:02
Sun May  3 09:07:46 2009: lab5map1510: dumpAdjs Returns: 0

This output shows you the uplink and downlink SNRs for any parent or child AP as well as any other neighbors the AP hears. This particular AP is RAP with no children.

Obviously, remembering these commands and what they do is difficult. You could run several other commands from the controller CLI to get information on the different quality of service (QoS) queues, Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP), and more. In the 4.2 mesh release of code, Cisco has added new commands specific to the 1510 series APs, as the output in Example 15-11 reveals.

Example 15-11. show mesh 1510-ap Commands

(Cisco Controller) >show mesh 1510-ap   ?
QoS-info - Displays various Queues on Mesh Backhaul
mesh-entries - Displays Mesh Association Table Entries
backhaul-stats - Displays Mesh Backhaul Statistics
client-stats - Displays Access Radio and Client information
mesh-aging - Displays Mesh Aging Parameters
11h-info - Displays 802.11h Management Frame Parameters
secBh-stats - Displays Secondary Backhaul Statistics
mesh-adjs - Displays Mesh Adjacencies
interface-info - Displays Ethernet and Loopback Interface Information
lwapp-config - Displays LWAPP Configuration

These new commands make viewing 1510 information easier because they are easier to remember and can combine several commands into one. For example, QoS-info includes dDetails, qShow, showQreset, and dumpQueueDrops output.

For the 1520 series APs, you can enable Telnet or run remote debugs from the controller:

debug ap enable AP_name
debug ap command "test mesh enable telnet" AP_name

Once Telnet is enabled, you can Telnet to the AP's IP address and run commands directly on the AP instead of remotely through the controller like on the 1510s. You can run the following commands on the 152x AP:

  • show mesh adj all: Displays mesh adjacencies
  • show mesh dfs history: Displays radar history
  • show mesh dfs channel channel: Displays the current DFS channel
  • show controllers dot111: Displays A radio
  • show controllers dot110: Displays B/G radio
  • show interface dot111: Displays A radio stats
  • show interface dot110: Displays B/G radio stats
  • show ip int brief: Displays IP information
  • config mesh linktest src AP name dst AP name 18 100: Runs a link test with a back-haul rate of 18 and 100 pps

Ethernet Bridging Troubleshooting

Before the 5.2 code release, troubleshooting Ethernet bridging with mesh APs was almost impossible. You had to rely on packet captures and Ethernet interface statistics.

Cisco added several show and debug commands with the 5.2 release to help troubleshoot and view VLAN tagging information.

From the controller, you can verify your VLAN tagging configuration using the following commands:

  • show ap config ethernet AP_name
  • show mesh config

The show ap config ethernet command shows you the mode of the Ethernet port, the native VLAN, and any allowed VLANs, as demonstrated in Example 15-12.

Example 15-12. show ap config ethernet Command Output

Cisco Controller) >show ap config ethernet 1131
Vlan Tagging Information For AP 1131
Ethernet 0
                                                                      Native  Vlan  12

Allowed Vlans:

The show mesh config command shows the status of VLAN transparency mode, as demonstrated in Example 15-13.

Example 15-13. show mesh config Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >show mesh config
Mesh Range....................................... 12000
Backhaul with client access status............... disabled
Background Scanning State........................ enabled
Mesh Security
   Security Mode................................. EAP
   External-Auth................................. disabled
   Use MAC Filter in External AAA server......... disabled
   Force External Authentication................. disabled
Mesh Alarm Criteria
   Max Hop Count................................. 4
   Recommended Max Children for MAP.............. 10
   Recommended Max Children for RAP.............. 20
   Low Link SNR.................................. 12
   High Link SNR................................. 60
   Max Association Number........................ 10
   Association Interval.......................... 60 minutes
   Parent Change Numbers......................... 3
   Parent Change Interval........................ 60 minutes
   Mesh Multicast Mode.............................. In-Out
   Mesh Full Sector DFS............................. enabled
   Mesh Ethernet Bridging VLAN Transparent Mode..... disabled

As you can see in Example 15-13, show mesh config shows the entire mesh configuration for a controller.

Here are the mesh ap debug commands:

  • debug mesh ethernet bridging: Debugs Ethernet bridging
  • debug mesh ethernet config: Debugs access and trunk port configuration
  • debug mesh ethernet registration: Debugs VLAN registration protocol
  • debug mesh forwarding table: Debugs forwarding table containing bridge groups
  • debug mesh forwarding packet bridge-group: Debugs the bridge group packet forwarding

Here are the mesh ap show commands:

  • show mesh forwarding table: Shows all the bridges with their mac-table entries.
  • show mesh forwarding vlan mode: Displays VLAN-Transparent mode.
  • show mesh forwarding vlan statistics: Displays VLAN forwarding statistics.
  • show mesh forwarding vlans: Shows all the supported VLANs.
  • show mesh forwarding interfaces: Displays the bridge groups and the interfaces contained in them. Useful for troubleshooting the bridge group membership.
  • show mesh ethernet vlan statistics: Shows Ethernet subinterface statistics.

Example 15-14 demonstrates output from the show mesh forwarding table command.

Example 15-14. show mesh forwarding table Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >debug ap command "show mesh forwarding table" 1242
(Cisco Controller) >*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242: Mesh Forwarding Table Entries
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242: Bridge Group 1   Vlan 1 :
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0023.5df1.9d40, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:BACKHAUL: 43 : 8
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0023.5df1.9d06, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:BACKHAUL: 43 : 8
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   001c.b107.fa2f, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:AWPP: 23 : 8
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   001c.58dc.97b0, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:BACKHAUL: 43 : 7
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0010.a4e5.2056, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:BACKHAUL: 43 : 8
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0001.0386.1991, nh 001c.b107.fa2f, swif Virtual-
Dot11Radio1:BACKHAUL: 43 : 8
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242: Bridge Group 2   Vlan 12 :
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242: Table size: 128, count 3
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0023.5df1.9d06 Virtual-Dot11Radio1  LEARNED  (life  300)
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   000f.b049.5898 FastEthernet0 LEARNED (life 300)
*May 03 13:13:49.219: 1242:   0023.5df1.9d43 Virtual-Dot11Radio1  LEARNED  (life  300)

From this output you can see that this AP has two bridge groups: one for VLAN 1 and the other for VLAN 12. There is a wired client in VLAN 12 with the MAC address of 000f.b049.5898.

The output from show mesh forwarding vlan mode tells you whether VLAN transparency is enabled or disabled on the AP, as demonstrated in Example 15-15.

Example 15-15. show mesh forwarding vlan mode Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >debug ap command "show mesh forwarding vlan mode" 1242
(Cisco Controller) >*May 03 13:15:53.025: 1242:
*May 03 13:15:53.025: 1242:  Vlan Transparent mode DISABLED
To see the VLANs that the AP is bridging, use show mesh forwarding vlan:
(Cisco Controller) >*May 03 13:15:17.697: 1242:
*May 03 13:15:17.697: 1242: Mesh Forwarding Vlans
*May 03 13:15:17.697: 1242: Vlan: 1      Supporting Bridge Group: 1
*May 03 13:15:17.697: 1242: Vlan: 12     Supporting Bridge Group: 2

To see transmit and receive stats for the bridged VLANs, use show mesh ethernet vlan statistics, as demonstrated in Example 15-16.

Example 15-16. show mesh ethernet vlan statistics Command Output

(Cisco Controller) >debug ap command "show mesh ethernet vlan statistics" 1242
Interface               Rx Packets   Tx Packets  Tbridge Reject
FastEthernet0                  119           41                 0

This output is helpful in determining whether traffic is passing over the bridge links.

To troubleshoot bridge group membership, use show mesh forwarding interfaces, as demonstrated in Example 15-17.

Example 15-17. show mesh forwarding interfaces Output

(Cisco Controller) >debug ap command "show mesh forwarding interfaces" 1242
(Cisco Controller) >*May  03 13:19:26.714: 1242: Bridge Group 1: Ethernet
Bridging  enabled
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:   Virtual-Dot11Radio1: Virtual-Dot11Radio1(state is
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:       Node 001c.b107.fa2f
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242: Bridge Group 2: Ethernet Bridging enabled
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:   FastEthernet0: FastEthernet0(state is OPEN)
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:       Node 0083.e574.0b0d
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:   Virtual-Dot11Radio1: Virtual-Dot11Radio1(state is
*May 03 13:19:26.714: 1242:       Node 001c.b107.fa2f

Here you can see that Ethernet bridging is enabled for bridge group 1 and 2. The FastEthernet port 0 is in bridge group 2. With the preceding output of show mesh forwarding vlan, you know that bridge group 2 is forwarding VLAN 12.

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Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@ciscopress.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.ciscopress.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020