Home > Articles > Cisco Network Technology > General Networking > Cisco Networking Academy's Introduction to Static Routing

Cisco Networking Academy's Introduction to Static Routing

  • Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
  • Date: Mar 27, 2014.

Chapter Description

This chapter explains the types of static routes as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each type. It also addresses routing configuration and troubleshooting.

Static Routing Implementation (2.1)

As previously stated, static routes are widely used in networks today. Static routes are used in networks of all sizes, and are used along with a dynamic routing protocol. For this reason, a good understanding of static routes is a requirement for implementing routing on a network.

Reach Remote Networks (

A router can learn about remote networks in one of two ways:

  • Manually: Remote networks are manually entered into the route table using static routes.
  • Dynamically: Remote routes are automatically learned using a dynamic routing protocol.

Figure 2-1 provides a sample scenario of static routing. Figure 2-2 provides a sample scenario of dynamic routing using EIGRP.

Figure 2-1

Figure 2-1 Static and Default Route Scenario

Figure 2-2

Figure 2-2 Dynamic Routing Scenario

A network administrator can manually configure a static route to reach a specific network. Unlike a dynamic routing protocol, static routes are not automatically updated and must be manually reconfigured any time the network topology changes. A static route does not change until the administrator manually reconfigures it.

Why Use Static Routing? (

Static routing provides some advantages over dynamic routing, including:

  • Static routes are not advertised over the network, resulting in better security.
  • Static routes use less bandwidth than dynamic routing protocols, as routers do not exchange routes.
  • No CPU cycles are used to calculate and communicate routes.
  • The path a static route uses to send data is known.

Static routing has the following disadvantages:

  • Initial configuration and maintenance is time-consuming.
  • Configuration can be error-prone, especially in large networks.
  • Administrator intervention is required to maintain changing route information.
  • Does not scale well with growing networks; maintenance becomes cumbersome.
  • Requires complete knowledge of the whole network for proper implementation.

In Table 2-1, dynamic and static routing features are compared. Notice that the advantages of one method are the disadvantages of the other.

Table 2-1 Dynamic Routing Versus Static Routing

Dynamic Routing

Static Routing

Configuration Complexity

Generally independent of the network size

Increases with the network size

Topology Changes

Automatically adapts to topology changes

Administrator intervention required


Suitable for simple and complex topologies

Suitable for simple topologies


Less secure

More secure

Resource Usage

Uses CPU, memory, link bandwidth

No extra resources needed


Route depends on the current topology

Route to destination is always the same

Static routes are useful for smaller networks with only one path to an outside network. They also provide security in a larger network for certain types of traffic or links to other networks that need more control. It is important to understand that static and dynamic routing are not mutually exclusive. Rather, most networks use a combination of dynamic routing protocols and static routes. This may result in the router having multiple paths to a destination network via static routes and dynamically learned routes. However, the administrative distance (AD) of a static route is 1. Therefore, a static route will take precedence over all dynamically learned routes.

When to Use Static Routes (

Static routing has three primary uses:

  • Providing ease of routing table maintenance in smaller networks that are not expected to grow significantly.
  • Routing to and from stub networks. A stub network is a network accessed by a single route, and the router has only one neighbor.
  • Using a single default route to represent a path to any network that does not have a more specific match with another route in the routing table. Default routes are used to send traffic to any destination beyond the next upstream router.

Figure 2-3 shows an example of a stub network connection and a default route connection. Notice in the figure that any network attached to R1 would only have one way to reach other destinations, whether to networks attached to R2, or to destinations beyond R2. This means that network is a stub network and R1 is a stub router. Running a routing protocol between R2 and R1 is a waste of resources.

Figure 2-3

Figure 2-3 Stub Networks and Stub Routers

In this example, a static route can be configured on R2 to reach the R1 LAN. Additionally, because R1 has only one way to send out non-local traffic, a default static route can be configured on R1 to point to R2 as the next hop for all other networks.

Static Route Applications (

Static routes are most often used to connect to a specific network or to provide a Gateway of Last Resort for a stub network. They can also be used to:

  • Reduce the number of routes advertised by summarizing several contiguous networks as one static route
  • Create a backup route in case a primary route link fails

The following types of IPv4 and IPv6 static routes will be discussed:

  • Standard static route
  • Default static route
  • Summary static route
  • Floating static route

Standard Static Route (

Both IPv4 and IPv6 support the configuration of static routes. Static routes are useful when connecting to a specific remote network.

Figure 2-4 shows that R2 can be configured with a static route to reach the stub network

Figure 2-4

Figure 2-4 Connecting to a Stub Network

Default Static Route (

A default static route is a route that matches all packets. A default route identifies the gateway IP address to which the router sends all IP packets that it does not have a learned or static route for. A default static route is simply a static route with as the destination IPv4 address. Configuring a default static route creates a Gateway of Last Resort.

Default static routes are used:

  • When no other routes in the routing table match the packet destination IP address. In other words, when a more specific match does not exist. A common use is when connecting a company’s edge router to the ISP network.
  • When a router has only one other router to which it is connected. This condition is known as a stub router.

Refer to Figure 2-5 for a sample scenario of implementing default static routing.

Figure 2-5

Figure 2-5 Connecting to a Stub Router

Summary Static Route (

To reduce the number of routing table entries, multiple static routes can be summarized into a single summary static route if:

  • The destination networks are contiguous and can be summarized into a single network address.
  • The multiple static routes all use the same exit interface or next-hop IP address.

In Figure 2-6, R1 would require four separate static routes to reach the to networks. Instead, one summary static route can be configured and still provide connectivity to those networks.

Figure 2-6

Figure 2-6 Using One Summary Static Route

Floating Static Route (

Another type of static route is a floating static route. Floating static routes are static routes that are used to provide a backup path to a primary static or dynamic route, in the event of a link failure. The floating static route is only used when the primary route is not available.

To accomplish this, the floating static route is configured with a higher administrative distance than the primary route. Recall that the administrative distance represents the trustworthiness of a route. If multiple paths to the destination exist, the router will choose the path with the lowest administrative distance.

For example, assume that an administrator wants to create a floating static route as a backup to an EIGRP-learned route. The floating static route must be configured with a higher administrative distance than EIGRP. EIGRP has an administrative distance of 90. If the floating static route is configured with an administrative distance of 95, the dynamic route learned through EIGRP is preferred to the floating static route. If the EIGRP-learned route is lost, the floating static route is used in its place.

In Figure 2-7, the Branch router typically forwards all traffic to the HQ router over the private WAN link. In this example, the routers exchange route information using EIGRP. A floating static route, with an administrative distance of 91 or higher, could be configured to serve as a backup route. If the private WAN link fails and the EIGRP route disappears from the routing table, the router selects the floating static route as the best path to reach the HQ LAN.

Figure 2-7

Figure 2-7 Configuring a Backup Route

5. Configure Summary and Floating Static Routes (2.4) | Next Section Previous Section

Cisco Press Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Cisco Press and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Cisco Press products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@ciscopress.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.ciscopress.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020