VLAN Security and Design (3.3)
The proliferation of network security certifications indicates that the importance of network security is growing. Every configuration, monitoring, maintenance, and troubleshooting procedure in a switched network must include an analysis of the security implications. VLANs and VLAN technologies play an integral role in the design and implementation of switched networks.
Attacks on VLANs (3.3.1)
A number of attacks are specific to the VLAN infrastructure. In this section, the various types of attacks involving VLANs are explored.
Switch Spoofing Attack (184.108.40.206)
There are a number of different types of VLAN attacks in modern switched networks. The VLAN architecture simplifies network maintenance and improves performance, but it also opens the door to abuse. It is important to understand the general methodology behind these attacks and the primary approaches to mitigate them.
VLAN hopping enables traffic from one VLAN to be seen by another VLAN. Switch spoofing is a type of VLAN hopping attack that works by taking advantage of an incorrectly configured trunk port. By default, trunk ports have access to all VLANs and pass traffic for multiple VLANs across the same physical link, generally between switches.
Figure 3-21 illustrates a switch spoofing attack.
Figure 3-21 Switch Spoofing Attack
In a basic switch spoofing attack, the attacker takes advantage of the fact that the default configuration of the switch port is dynamic auto. The network attacker configures a system to spoof itself as a switch. This spoofing requires that the network attacker be capable of emulating 802.1Q and DTP messages. By tricking a switch into thinking that another switch is attempting to form a trunk, an attacker can gain access to all the VLANs allowed on the trunk port.
The best way to prevent a basic switch spoofing attack is to turn off trunking on all ports, except the ones that specifically require trunking. On the required trunking ports, disable DTP and manually enable trunking.
Double-Tagging Attack (220.127.116.11)
Another type of VLAN attack is a double-tagging (or double-encapsulated) VLAN hopping attack. This type of attack takes advantage of the way that hardware on most switches operates. Most switches perform only one level of 802.1Q deencapsulation, which allows an attacker to embed a hidden 802.1Q tag inside the frame. This tag allows the frame to be forwarded to a VLAN that the original 802.1Q tag did not specify. An important characteristic of the double-encapsulated VLAN hopping attack is that it works even if trunk ports are disabled, because a host typically sends a frame on a segment that is not a trunk link.
A double-tagging attack, illustrated in Figure 3-22, follows three steps:
- The attacker sends a double-tagged 802.1Q frame to the switch. The outer header has the VLAN tag of the attacker, which is the same as the native VLAN of the trunk port. The assumption is that the switch processes the frame received from the attacker as if it were on a trunk port or a port with a voice VLAN (a switch should not receive a tagged Ethernet frame on an access port). For the purposes of this example, assume that the native VLAN is VLAN 10. The inner tag is the victim VLAN, in this case, VLAN 20.
- The frame arrives on the switch, which looks at the first 4-byte 802.1Q tag. The switch sees that the frame is destined for VLAN 10, which is the native VLAN. The switch forwards the packet out on all VLAN 10 ports after stripping the VLAN 10 tag. On the trunk port, the VLAN 10 tag is stripped, and the packet is not retagged because it is part of the native VLAN. At this point, the VLAN 20 tag is still intact and has not been inspected by the first switch.
The second switch looks only at the inner 802.1Q tag that the attacker sent and sees that the frame is destined for VLAN 20, the target VLAN. The second switch sends the frame on to the victim port or floods it, depending on whether there is an existing MAC address table entry for the victim host.
Figure 3-22 Double-Tagging Attack
This type of attack is unidirectional and works only when the attacker is connected to a port residing in the same VLAN as the native VLAN of the trunk port. Thwarting this type of attack is not as easy as stopping basic VLAN hopping attacks.
The best approach to mitigating double-tagging attacks is to ensure that the native VLAN of the trunk ports is different from the VLAN of any user ports. In fact, it is considered a security best practice to use a fixed VLAN that is distinct from all user VLANs in the switched network as the native VLAN for all 802.1Q trunks.
PVLAN Edge (18.104.22.168)
Some applications require that no traffic be forwarded at Layer 2 between ports on the same switch so that one neighbor does not see the traffic generated by another neighbor. In such an environment, the use of the Private VLAN (PVLAN) Edge feature, also known as protected ports, ensures that there is no exchange of unicast, broadcast, or multicast traffic between these ports on the switch, as shown in Figure 3-23.
Figure 3-23 Private VLAN Edge
The PVLAN Edge feature has the following characteristics:
- A protected port does not forward any traffic (unicast, multicast, or broadcast) to any other port that is also a protected port, except for control traffic. Data traffic cannot be forwarded between protected ports at Layer 2.
- Forwarding behavior between a protected port and a nonprotected port proceeds as usual.
- Protected ports must be manually configured.
To configure the PVLAN Edge feature, enter the switchport protected command in interface configuration mode, as shown in Example 3-21. To disable protected port, use the no switchport protected interface configuration mode command. To verify the configuration of the PVLAN Edge feature, use the show interfaces interface-id switchport global configuration mode command.
Example 3-21 PVLAN Edge
S1(config)# interface g0/1
S1(config-if)# switchport protected
S1# show interfaces g0/1 switchport
Administrative Mode: dynamic auto
Operational Mode: down
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: dot1q
Negotiation of Trunking: On
Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Administrative Native VLAN tagging: enabled
Voice VLAN: none
Unknown unicast blocked: disabled
Unknown multicast blocked: disabled
Appliance trust: none
VLAN Best Practices (3.3.2)
VLAN best practices refer to those practices that any network administrator responsible for portions of a switched network should employ in his day-to-day work. These comprise standard operating procedures for switch practitioners.
VLAN Design Guidelines (22.214.171.124)
Cisco switches have a factory configuration in which default VLANs are preconfigured to support various media and protocol types. The default Ethernet VLAN is VLAN 1. It is a security best practice to configure all the ports on all switches to be associated with VLANs other than VLAN 1. This is usually done by configuring all unused ports to a black hole VLAN that is not used for anything on the network. All used ports are associated with VLANs distinct from VLAN 1 and distinct from the black hole VLAN. It is also a good practice to shut down unused switch ports to prevent unauthorized access.
A good security practice is to separate management and user data traffic. The management VLAN, which is VLAN 1 by default, should be changed to a separate, distinct VLAN. To communicate remotely with a Cisco switch for management purposes, the switch must have an IP address configured on the management VLAN. Users in other VLANs would not be able to establish remote access sessions to the switch unless they were routed into the management VLAN, providing an additional layer of security. Also, the switch should be configured to accept only encrypted SSH sessions for remote management.
All control traffic is sent on VLAN 1. Therefore, when the native VLAN is changed to something other than VLAN 1, all control traffic is tagged on IEEE 802.1Q VLAN trunks (tagged with VLAN ID 1). A recommended security practice is to change the native VLAN to a different VLAN than VLAN 1. The native VLAN should also be distinct from all user VLANs. Ensure that the native VLAN for an 802.1Q trunk is the same on both ends of the trunk link.
DTP offers four switch port modes: access, trunk, dynamic auto, and dynamic desirable. A general guideline is to disable autonegotiation. As a port security best practice, do not use the dynamic auto or dynamic desirable switch port modes.
Finally, voice traffic has stringent QoS requirements. If user PCs and IP phones are on the same VLAN, each tries to use the available bandwidth without considering the other device. To avoid this conflict, it is good practice to use separate VLANs for IP telephony and data traffic.