Home > Articles > Intercloud Architecture and Technologies

Intercloud Architecture and Technologies

  • Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
  • Date: Sep 26, 2016.

Chapter Description

In this sample chapter from Intercloud: Solving Interoperability and Communication in a Cloud of Clouds, authors Jazib Frahim, Venkata Josyula, Monique Morrow, and Ken Owens explore how cloud providers have set up data centers at many locations to service their customers. For example, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, Salesforce.com, and others have established data centers for hosting cloud application services such as social networking, gaming portals, and business applications. In many of these social networks, the service components run in separate virtual machines that may be hosted in data centers owned by different cloud computing providers. In order to link the services provided by different providers at different locations around the world and to provide quality service to a consumer, it is necessary to build an Intercloud to bring the services together. This chapter details Intercloud architecture mode, Intercloud use cases, and Intercloud deploy.

Cisco Application Enablement Platform as a Service

Every company is becoming a software company. The Intercloud’s primary use case is to enable application portability and interoperability across a world of clouds. By virtue of its broad definition, one can throw in various solutions under the PaaS umbrella. For our purposes we will define what PaaS encompasses by looking at what customer problems need to be solved and working backward from there. Our target audience in terms of usage of the PaaS solution on the Intercloud is the enterprise developers and enterprise IT engineering teams on the customer side; the set of decision makers for adoption of a particular PaaS offering will have a mix of technical and business roles. Figure 2-8 shows the traditional differences between infrastructure and PaaS.

Figure 2-8

Figure 2-8 IaaS and PaaS Differences

We will start by looking at what problems the first group faces and then move on to selecting the PaaS components that will solve those problems. The following three phases clearly distinguish between PaaS and IaaS and how Cisco Intercloud overcomes many of the issues:

  • Phase 1 is the development phase, which is when the developers and testers develop, build, deploy, and test the application in their local environment or a preproduction version of the cloud environment they plan to use. One friction point here is that they need to be able to consume the various cloud components from their application code, but doing so involves repeatedly writing code that should ideally be abstracted away in a utility layer. Another pain point at this stage is that the developers need to have confidence that their application that worked correctly in the test environment will continue to do so when deployed to the production environment. The Intercloud addresses these problems by packaging OpenStack APIs (the framework under which the Intercloud is standardized) that let an application request, consume, and release Intercloud resources in software development kits (SDKs) built specifically for the common languages used by customers (for example, Java or Python). The second problem of ensuring consistency through the various deployment stages is best solved by providing a facility for customers to containerize their application so that it deals with the underlying infrastructure only through interfaces previously agreed on between the container and the infrastructure (in this case OpenStack).

  • Phase 2 (deployment phase) is the deployment of the built and tested application through various stages, culminating in the production cloud environment. This is similar to the previous phase where developers require consistency in the behavior of their application but in addition are interested in having a deployment experience that is not cumbersome, error prone, and manual in nature. An ideal solution here will provision the required cloud resources, wire them up as needed, deploy the right containers, and provide the customer a report that lists the deployment status, the resources being used, and the endpoints to the applications. All of these would be driven via preconfigured settings to ensure a high level of automation.

  • Phase 3 (support phase) starts after the deployment is completed and the application is supporting production traffic (or workloads for an offline application). During this phase it is important to ensure that cloud resources are scaling in an elastic manner, key health parameters are monitored and alarmed upon, and the engineering team is able to quickly fix issues by deploying patches or new versions with minimal downtime. The scalability aspect can be handled by leveraging the autoscaling functionality in OpenStack and ensuring that it works with the container format under which the customer has chosen to deploy. When it comes to monitoring and triggering alarms, the customer should be able to define metrics around system resources (such as CPU usage) and application-specific measurements (such as average latency when communicating with another node). This requirement means there must be a monitoring service that customers can easily integrate into their application and can be viewed in multiple ways (for example, a dashboard for a high-level view, logs for deep diving). Last, the chosen container format should be able to deploy updated containers to a production environment with zero downtime to the service. This monitoring is key to application intent enforcement and improved performance of the application.

Integrated Platform as a Service (iPaaS)

Integrated platform as a service (iPaaS) is defined as components of cloud services enabling development, execution, and governance of integration flows connecting any combination of on-premises and cloud-based processes, services, applications, and data within individual or across multiple organizations.

The primary use case here is to integrate the enterprise PaaS, public PaaS, and application deployments into the development lifecycle. The Intercloud will enable integration between select partner offerings Cisco wants to expose to its customers as “first-class” PaaS offerings and will deeply integrate them into the Cisco ecosystem, including giving them a presence in the Horizon dashboard. An example of this would be running the Red Hat PaaS product OpenShift service in a hosted model that doesn’t require customers to have a dedicated OpenShift controller and will let them choose from a list of “cartridges” that Cisco maintains in its library.

In this same scenario, if customers prefer a single-tenant PaaS controller, they will always have the option to buy OpenShift from the Cisco Intercloud Marketplace for their exclusive use. Another example would be Cisco maintaining its own “hub” and container repositories for the Docker container format for customers to build and manage their applications. By pursuing this option, Cisco also has the ability to integrate the PaaS solutions to provide a seamless experience for its customers (for example, the Cisco hosted OpenShift can easily fetch containers that a customer owns). When Cisco sees an opportunity to differentiate (such as a unified dashboard for all “first-class” PaaS offerings), it is able to build that and market it exclusively to its customers. It is also worth noting that if a partner’s solution is not exposed as a deeply integrated solution on Cisco Cloud Services, the partner is still able to reach the Cisco customers by onboarding on the Cisco Marketplace; this provides Cisco customers with options that suit their workload and interoperability needs.

The availability of competing PaaS solutions in the Cisco Marketplace will also help Cisco maintain its leverage with the vendors it has chosen to supply its “first-class” PaaS offerings. The downside of this option is that it requires Cisco to get buy-in, at a preferred price point, from the partners it wishes to integrate. This can also lead to Cisco having to build and operate parts of the PaaS when it simply cannot find a good external offering.

Application Platform as a Service (aPaaS)

Application platform as a service (aPaaS) is defined as a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an application.

The primary use case here is derived by understanding that the Intercloud is trying to become the cloud-of-clouds platform and the IoE platform. To enable this platform, a curated experience with all the PaaS capabilities will need to be created. Cisco will create a container format that works on all OpenStack environments in a consistent manner and will provide developers a set of SDKs to build against and package toward this container. Cisco will then augment the capabilities of OpenStack’s orchestrator, Heat, to deploy these containers to cloud. Next, Cisco will build and operate a service that works in conjunction with Nova (OpenStack’s compute module) to ensure autoscaling of the underlying resources. Finally, Cisco will have a homegrown monitoring service that will look for deviation from preconfigured steady states in addition to executing automated healing steps. This is similar to what Amazon Web Services (AWS) has in the form of Elastic Beanstalk, EC2 Auto Scaling, CloudFormation, and CloudWatch.

The benefits of this option are that Cisco can fully control the customer experience, iterate fast on bug fixes and new features, and work with otherwise incompatible systems (for instance, integrate with Cisco NFV modules). Furthermore, by virtue of offering innovative features specifically for its enterprise customers, this option also enables Cisco to differentiate from other cloud offerings more prominently. The downside here is that this will take a larger monetary and time investment to bring to market. Furthermore, this will make it harder for Cisco customers to realize the Intercloud benefits by making it difficult to deploy their applications to other clouds, both private and partner, unless Cisco makes a concerted effort to ensure that its PaaS is available in those clouds.

Use Cases for PaaS

The following use cases for PaaS are covered by the Intercloud:

  • Cloud native: Most developers are looking at the role of cloud-native development in the next generation of enterprise applications and mobile devices. This model does not mean that all of your development is done in public clouds; it is more about how a developer approaches code development, deployment, and runtime. Containers are becoming very critical to cloud-native developers because of the abstraction layer they provide, and the individual services greatly simplify development. This use case is more likely to use an aPaaS framework as it is more aligned with developers writing to application platforms rather than the underlying infrastructure.

  • Cloud valid: Several enterprises are on a journey to cloud by enabling many web application and public-facing services. This use case has more to do with the legacy applications in the enterprise and determining which applications should be exposed in clouds and which ones cannot, at least not yet. The primary reasons for not having those applications in clouds mostly have to do with the internal OSS/BSS dependencies, database dependencies, or data security concerns. The Intercloud enables this use case by iPaaS, which enables enterprise customers to leverage the infrastructure APIs in the enterprise and in cloud to create applications that can be deployed behind the firewall or in clouds (public or private), thereby creating a hybrid cloud use case where “hybrid” is defined as application components deployed in the enterprise data center and cloud connected securely.

  • Hybrid DevOps: Hybrid DevOps is the Intercloud IoE platform for enterprises to start developing today for internal and external deployment patterns that over time will move more and more toward cloud native or the next-generation development pattern (fourth generation of PaaS). DevOps is an enterprise software development phrase meaning a type of agile relationship between development and IT operations. The capabilities of the Intercloud for the hybrid DevOps use case are displayed in Figure 2-9.

    Figure 2-9

    Figure 2-9 Intercloud Hybrid DevOps Capabilities

5. Cloud Operational Support Systems (OSS) | Next Section Previous Section

Cisco Press Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Cisco Press and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Cisco Press products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@ciscopress.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.ciscopress.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020