Home > Articles > Cisco Network Technology > Routing & Switching > Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals: Configuring Switches

Cisco LAN Switching Fundamentals: Configuring Switches

  • Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
  • Date: Dec 23, 2004.

Chapter Description

This chapter provides guidance and configuration examples for connecting switches running both native and hybrid software configurations, and offers examples of both Layer 3 and Layer 2 connectivity between switches.

Configuring the Access Layer

Switchports on the Catalyst 5500 SW3 and interfaces on the Catalyst 4506 SW4 will be configured in VLANs to support access layer devices. Figure 7-10 shows the IP network numbers assigned to these VLANs.

Figure 10Figure 7-10 Addition of Access Layer VLANs

Configuring the access layer begins with configuring ports on SW3 to be in VLAN 130. VLAN 130 is one of the access layer VLANs in the VLAN addressing scheme outlined in Table 7-1 earlier in this chapter. Remember VLAN 130 was created on SW3 earlier in VTP configuration (refer to Example 7-3). In Example 7-37, module 4 on SW3 is a 24-port 10/100 Mb FastEthernet module, and will have all ports assigned to VLAN 130.

Example 7-37 Configuring Ports on SW3 as Members of VLAN 130

SW3> (enable) show mod 4
Mod Module-Name     Ports Module-Type      Model  Serial-Num Status
--- ------------------- ----- --------------------- --------- --------- -------
4            24  10/100BaseTX Ethernet WS-X5224 009607843 ok

Mod MAC-Address(es)            Hw   Fw     Sw
--- -------------------------------------- ------ ---------- -----------------
4  00-10-7b-78-57-00 to 00-10-7b-78-57-17 1.4  3.1(1)   4.5(5)
SW3> (enable)

SW3> (enable) set vlan 130 4/1-24
VLAN 130 modified.
VLAN 1 modified.
VLAN Mod/Ports
---- -----------------------
130  4/1-24

SW3> (enable)

For these ports to be reachable from other networks, an SVI must be configured on the RSM for VLAN 130. The SVI for VLAN 130 is configured in Example 7-38. Remember sc0 on the switch is already assigned to VLAN 130 with an IP address of in Example 7-8, earlier in the chapter.

Example 7-38 Configuring a SVI for VLAN 130 on the RSM of SW3

RSM1#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
RSM1(config)#int vlan130
RSM1(config-if)#ip address

In Example 7-39, the show interface vlan130 command is issued to confirm the SVI is UP/UP, and a ping from the SVI to the sc0 interface on the supervisor is issued.

In Example 7-40, the interfaces on module 2 of SW4 are configured for VLAN 140. Module 4 on the SW4 is a 48-port 10/100/1000BASE-TX module.

Example 7-39 Verifying the Status of the VLAN130 Interface and sc0

RSM1#show interface vlan130
Vlan130 is up, line protocol is up
 Hardware is Cat5k Virtual Ethernet, address is 0010.f6b3.4800 (bia 0010.f6b3.4
 Internet address is
(output truncated)


Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to, timeout is 2 seconds:
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 1/23/112 ms

Example 7-40 Configuring Ports 2/1-48 on SW4 for VLAN 140

SW4#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW4(config)#interface range gigabitethernet 2/1 - 48
SW4(config-if-range)#switchport mode access
SW4(config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 140

SW4#show vlan

VLAN Name               Status  Ports
---- -------------------------------- --------- -------------------------------
1  default             active
140 VLAN0140             active  Gi2/1, Gi2/2, Gi2/3, Gi2/4
                        Gi2/5, Gi2/6, Gi2/7, Gi2/8
                        Gi2/9, Gi2/10, Gi2/11, Gi2/12
                        Gi2/13, Gi2/14, Gi2/15, Gi2/16
                        Gi2/17, Gi2/18, Gi2/19, Gi2/20
                        Gi2/21, Gi2/22, Gi2/23, Gi2/24
                        Gi2/25, Gi2/26, Gi2/27, Gi2/28
                        Gi2/29, Gi2/30, Gi2/31, Gi2/32
                        Gi2/33, Gi2/34, Gi2/35, Gi2/36
                        Gi2/37, Gi2/38, Gi2/39, Gi2/40
                        Gi2/41, Gi2/42, Gi2/43, Gi2/44
                        Gi2/45, Gi2/46, Gi2/47, Gi2/48
!output truncated

The interface range command must be entered exactly as shown in Example 7-40 with spaces to be accepted. The output of the show vlan command shows ports 2/1–48 assigned successfully to VLAN 140.

Now that these ports have been assigned, an SVI must be created on SW4 so that VLAN 140 can be reached from other networks. The SVI for VLAN 140 on SW4 is created in Example 7-41.

Example 7-41 Configuration of a SVI on SW4 for VLAN 140

SW4#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW4(config)#interface VLAN140
SW4(config-if)#ip address
SW4(config-if)#no shutdown

In Example 7-42, the show interface vlan140 command is issued to confirm the SVI is UP/UP.

Example 7-42 Verifying the Status of the VLAN140 Interface

SW4#show interface vlan140
Vlan140 is up, line protocol is up
 Hardware is Ethernet SVI, address is 000b.fdd5.62bf (bia 000b.fdd5.62bf)
 Internet address is

Dynamic Routing

Now that the Layer 3 connections between the four switches are configured, the access layer VLANs created, and access ports assigned, a dynamic routing protocol is configured to allow connectivity between VLANs. In these examples, EIGRP is used as the dynamic routing protocol. EIGRP will be enabled on all four switches using Autonomous System (AS) 100, starting with SW1. Refer to the documentation on Cisco.com for more information about EIGRP and other dynamic routing protocols. Example 7-43 shows EIGRP being configured on SW1.

Example 7-43 EIGRP Configured on SW1

SW1(config)#router eigrp 100
SW1#show ip eigrp interfaces
IP-EIGRP interfaces for process 100

          Xmit Queue  Mean  Pacing Time  Multicast  Pending
Interface  Peers Un/Reliable SRTT  Un/Reliable  Flow Timer  Routes
Gi1/1     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Gi1/2     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Fa10/23    0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Lo0      0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0

The output of the show ip eigrp interfaces command in Example 7-43 indicates the four interfaces that have been configured on SW1 with IP addresses in the previous exercises now part of EIGRP AS 100. The same commands are repeated on SW2 in Example 7-44, on SW3 in Example 7-45, and on SW4 in Example 7-46.

Example 7-44 EIGRP Configured on SW2

SW2#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW2(config)#router eigrp 100
SW2#show ip eigrp interfaces
IP-EIGRP interfaces for process 100

          Xmit Queue  Mean  Pacing Time  Multicast  Pending
Interface  Peers Un/Reliable SRTT  Un/Reliable  Flow Timer  Routes
Gi1/1     1    0/0   1044    0/10    5216      0
Gi1/2     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Fa3/37     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Lo0      0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0

Example 7-45 EIGRP Configured on the RSM of SW3

RSM1(config)#router eigrp 100
RSM1#show ip eigrp interfaces
IP-EIGRP interfaces for process 100

          Xmit Queue  Mean  Pacing Time  Multicast  Pending
Interface  Peers Un/Reliable SRTT  Un/Reliable  Flow Timer  Routes
Vl130     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Vl901     1    0/0    726    0/10    3632      0
Vl902     1    0/0    752    0/10    3760      0
Lo0      0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0

Example 7-46 EIGRP Configured on SW4

SW4#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW4(config)#router eigrp 100
SW4#show ip eigrp interfaces
IP-EIGRP interfaces for process 100

          Xmit Queue  Mean  Pacing Time  Multicast  Pending
Interface  Peers Un/Reliable SRTT  Un/Reliable  Flow Timer  Routes
Vl140     0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Gi1/1     1    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Gi1/2     1    0/0     0    0/10      0      0
Lo0      0    0/0     0    0/10      0      0

Now that dynamic routing for network and its subnets has been configured on all four switches, a look at the routing table of SW1 in Example 7-47 shows that the networks for the access layer VLANs ( and are now reachable via the uplinks to those switches.

Example 7-47 Output of show ip route on SW1

SW1#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
    D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area
    N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
    E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP
    i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area
    * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR
    P - periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort is not set is variably subnetted, 11 subnets, 3 masks
C is directly connected, FastEthernet10/23
      [90/28416] via, 00:03:08, GigabitEthernet1/2
C is directly connected, GigabitEthernet1/2
      [90/3072] via, 00:03:11, GigabitEthernet1/2
      [90/3072] via, 00:03:11, GigabitEthernet1/1
      [90/130816] via, 00:03:08, GigabitEthernet1/2
C is directly connected, GigabitEthernet1/1
C is directly connected, Loopback0
      [90/130816] via, 00:03:11, GigabitEthernet1/1
      [90/156160] via, 00:06:00, FastEthernet10/23
      [90/30720] via, 00:06:00, FastEthernet10/23
      [90/3072] via, 00:03:12, GigabitEthernet1/1
C is directly connected, EOBC0/0

Channeling and Trunking

All the configuration examples thus far have assumed it is possible to restrict a VLAN to a single switch. Although this is the cleanest and simplest configuration, it is not always possible. Many times, connections between access layer and distribution layer switches are Layer 2, and VLANs must span many switches because of application or administrative requirements. Chapter 11, "Design and Implementation Best Practices," discusses additional design options and considerations.

In Figure 7-11, a requirement for two additional VLANs with ports on both SW1 and SW2 is introduced. VLANs 401 and 402 are used for the exercises. VLANs 401 and 402 have been created on SW1 and SW2 using the same procedures as in Examples 7-1 through 7-4. While the Gigabit connection between SW1 and SW2 could be converted to a trunk to carry these additional VLANs, some unused FastEthernet ports will be configured in a channel to carry only these new VLANs and VLAN 1.

Figure 11Figure 7-11 Addition of VLANs 401 and 402

Configuration begins with creating the channel group on SW1, as shown in Example 7-48.

Example 7-48 Creating the Channel Group on SW1

SW1#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW1(config)#interface range fastEthernet 10/11 - 14
SW1(config-if-range)#no ip address
SW1(config-if-range)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW1(config-if-range)#switchport mode trunk
SW1(config-if-range)#switchport mode dynamic desirable
SW1(config-if-range)#switchport trunk allowed vlan remove 2-400,403-1005
SW1(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
SW1(config-if-range)#no shutdown

The channel is completed by configuring the other side on SW2, as shown in Example 7-49.

Example 7-49 Creating the Channel Group on SW2

SW2(config)#interface range fastEthernet 3/11 - 14
SW2(config-if-range)#no ip address

SW2(config-if-range)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
SW2(config-if-range)#switchport mode trunk
SW2(config-if-range)#switchport mode dynamic desirable
SW2(config-if-range)#switchport trunk allowed vlan remove 2-400,403-1005
SW2(config-if-range)#channel-group 1 mode desirable
Creating a port-channel interface Port-channel1
SW2(config-if-range)#no shutdown

Issuing a show run interface fastEthernet 3/11 command displays the configuration of one of the ports in the channel (see Example 7-50).

Example 7-50 Verifying the Configuration on SW2

SW2#show run interface fastEthernet 3/11
Building configuration...

Current configuration : 182 bytes
interface FastEthernet3/11
 no ip address
 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
 switchport trunk allowed vlan 1,401,402
 channel-group 1 mode desirable

The operation of the new channel group can be verified by issuing a show interfaces port-channel 1 command. The operation of the trunk can be verified by issuing the show interfaces trunk command, as shown in Example 7-51.

Example 7-51 Output of the show interfaces port-channel and show interfaces trunk Commands on SW1

SW1#show interfaces port-channel 1
Port-channel1 is up, line protocol is up
 Hardware is EtherChannel, address is 0009.1267.9ffa (bia 0009.1267.9ffa)
 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 400000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,
   reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
 Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set
 Full-duplex, 100Mb/s
 Members in this channel: Fa10/11 Fa10/12 Fa10/13 Fa10/14
!output truncated

SW1#show interfaces trunk

Port   Mode     Encapsulation Status    Native vlan
Po1    desirable  802.1q     trunking   1

Port   Vlans allowed on trunk
Po1    1,401-402

Port   Vlans allowed and active in management domain
Po1    1,401-402

Port   Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned
Po1    1,401-402

The bandwidth reported on the channel is 400000 Kbit, and the members of the channel are listed in the output.

Configuring UniDirectional Link Detection

One best practice to follow when configuring a network like the one used in this chapter is the configuration of UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) in Aggressive mode. UDLD is designed to mitigate certain fault conditions on fiber and copper Ethernet interfaces. UDLD is designed to shutdown any miswired ports or unidirectional links by putting the port in an errDisabled state. UDLD is a Layer 2 protocol and, when run in combination with autonegotiation Layer 1 mechanisms, UDLD can validate the physical (Layer 1) and logical (Layer 2) integrity of a link. UDLD accomplishes this task by learning about neighbors and keeping neighbor status in a cache. Neighbors are learned by the sending of UDLD echo or hello messages.

The UDLD Aggressive feature provides additional protection against unidirectional link conditions in certain situations, and attempts to re-establish a connection with the neighbor when a failure is detected. UDLD Aggressive works by detecting when one side of a link remains up while the other side of the link has gone down, and after eight failed retries, transitions the port to an errDisabled state and generates a syslog message.

Cisco recommends configuring UDLD in Aggressive mode on point-to-point FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet links between Cisco switches, and setting the message interval to 15 seconds. UDLD is globally disabled by default and can be enabled globally or on a port–by-port basis. In the examples in this section, UDLD Aggressive should be configured on all the links between switches. An example of this configuration on a per-port basis is shown in Example 7-52 using SW1 and SW2.

Example 7-52 Enabling Aggressive UDLD on SW1 and SW2

SW1#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW1(config)#interface range gigabitethernet 1/1 - 2
SW1(config-if-range)#udld enable
SW1(config-if-range)#udld aggressive

SW2#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW2(config)#interface range gigabitethernet 1/1 - 2
SW2(config-if-range)#udld enable
SW2(config-if-range)#udld aggressive

The output of the show udld command on SW1 shows the status of the UDLD configuration. In the output in Example 7-53, SW1 detects SW2 as a UDLD neighbor, because both SW1 and SW2 have been configured, but does not detect SW4 on GigabitEthernet1/1 because it has yet to be configured.

Example 7-53 Output of show udld Command on SW1

SW1#show udld

Interface Gi1/1
Port enable administrative configuration setting: Enabled / in aggressive mode
Port enable operational state: Enabled / in aggressive mode
Current bidirectional state: Unknown
Current operational state: Advertisement
Message interval: 7
Time out interval: 5
No neighbor cache information stored

Interface Gi1/2
Port enable administrative configuration setting: Enabled / in aggressive mode
Port enable operational state: Enabled / in aggressive mode
Current bidirectional state: Bidirectional
Current operational state: Advertisement - Single neighbor detected
Message interval: 60
Time out interval: 5

  Entry 1
  Expiration time: 168
  Device ID: 1
  Current neighbor state: Bidirectional
  Device name: SAD04281ARM
  Port ID: Gi1/1
  Neighbor echo 1 device: SAD050814BH
  Neighbor echo 1 port: Gi1/2

  Message interval: 5
  CDP Device name: SW2

Portfast and BPDU Guard

You can find a detailed discussion of portfast and BPDU Guard in Chapter 10, "Implementing and Tuning Spanning Tree," but the configuration of the access layer ports in this chapter's examples would not be complete without enabling portfast and BPDU Guard.

Portfast is a feature that bypasses the normal spanning-tree operation of listening and learning and places a port immediately into forwarding when a port is connected. Portfast should only be used on ports connecting to end-station devices such as workstations and servers. Portfast is disabled by default and is enabled on a port-by-port basis.

The addition of BPDU Guard as an additional protection allows the switch to place any port configured with portfast into an errDisabled state if a BPDU is received on that port. Because ports 2/1 through 2/48 on SW4 were configured for access layer devices in VLAN 140 in Example 7-40 earlier in the chapter, those ports will have portfast and BPDU Guard enabled as follows in Example 7-54.

Example 7-54 Enabling Portfast and BPDU Guard on SW4

SW4#config t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
SW4(config)#interface range gigabitethernet 2/1 - 48
SW4(config-if-range)#spanning-tree portfast
%Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single
 host. Connecting hubs, concentrators, switches, bridges, etc... to this
 interface when portfast is enabled, can cause temporary bridging loops.
 Use with CAUTION
%Portfast will be configured in 48 interfaces due to the range command
 but will only have effect when the interfaces are in a non-trunking mode.

SW4(config-if-range)#spanning-tree bpduguard enable
6. Configuring SNMP | Next Section Previous Section

Cisco Press Promotional Mailings & Special Offers

I would like to receive exclusive offers and hear about products from Cisco Press and its family of brands. I can unsubscribe at any time.


Pearson Education, Inc., 221 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, (Pearson) presents this site to provide information about Cisco Press products and services that can be purchased through this site.

This privacy notice provides an overview of our commitment to privacy and describes how we collect, protect, use and share personal information collected through this site. Please note that other Pearson websites and online products and services have their own separate privacy policies.

Collection and Use of Information

To conduct business and deliver products and services, Pearson collects and uses personal information in several ways in connection with this site, including:

Questions and Inquiries

For inquiries and questions, we collect the inquiry or question, together with name, contact details (email address, phone number and mailing address) and any other additional information voluntarily submitted to us through a Contact Us form or an email. We use this information to address the inquiry and respond to the question.

Online Store

For orders and purchases placed through our online store on this site, we collect order details, name, institution name and address (if applicable), email address, phone number, shipping and billing addresses, credit/debit card information, shipping options and any instructions. We use this information to complete transactions, fulfill orders, communicate with individuals placing orders or visiting the online store, and for related purposes.


Pearson may offer opportunities to provide feedback or participate in surveys, including surveys evaluating Pearson products, services or sites. Participation is voluntary. Pearson collects information requested in the survey questions and uses the information to evaluate, support, maintain and improve products, services or sites; develop new products and services; conduct educational research; and for other purposes specified in the survey.

Contests and Drawings

Occasionally, we may sponsor a contest or drawing. Participation is optional. Pearson collects name, contact information and other information specified on the entry form for the contest or drawing to conduct the contest or drawing. Pearson may collect additional personal information from the winners of a contest or drawing in order to award the prize and for tax reporting purposes, as required by law.


If you have elected to receive email newsletters or promotional mailings and special offers but want to unsubscribe, simply email information@ciscopress.com.

Service Announcements

On rare occasions it is necessary to send out a strictly service related announcement. For instance, if our service is temporarily suspended for maintenance we might send users an email. Generally, users may not opt-out of these communications, though they can deactivate their account information. However, these communications are not promotional in nature.

Customer Service

We communicate with users on a regular basis to provide requested services and in regard to issues relating to their account we reply via email or phone in accordance with the users' wishes when a user submits their information through our Contact Us form.

Other Collection and Use of Information

Application and System Logs

Pearson automatically collects log data to help ensure the delivery, availability and security of this site. Log data may include technical information about how a user or visitor connected to this site, such as browser type, type of computer/device, operating system, internet service provider and IP address. We use this information for support purposes and to monitor the health of the site, identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents and appropriately scale computing resources.

Web Analytics

Pearson may use third party web trend analytical services, including Google Analytics, to collect visitor information, such as IP addresses, browser types, referring pages, pages visited and time spent on a particular site. While these analytical services collect and report information on an anonymous basis, they may use cookies to gather web trend information. The information gathered may enable Pearson (but not the third party web trend services) to link information with application and system log data. Pearson uses this information for system administration and to identify problems, improve service, detect unauthorized access and fraudulent activity, prevent and respond to security incidents, appropriately scale computing resources and otherwise support and deliver this site and its services.

Cookies and Related Technologies

This site uses cookies and similar technologies to personalize content, measure traffic patterns, control security, track use and access of information on this site, and provide interest-based messages and advertising. Users can manage and block the use of cookies through their browser. Disabling or blocking certain cookies may limit the functionality of this site.

Do Not Track

This site currently does not respond to Do Not Track signals.


Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.


This site is not directed to children under the age of 13.


Pearson may send or direct marketing communications to users, provided that

  • Pearson will not use personal information collected or processed as a K-12 school service provider for the purpose of directed or targeted advertising.
  • Such marketing is consistent with applicable law and Pearson's legal obligations.
  • Pearson will not knowingly direct or send marketing communications to an individual who has expressed a preference not to receive marketing.
  • Where required by applicable law, express or implied consent to marketing exists and has not been withdrawn.

Pearson may provide personal information to a third party service provider on a restricted basis to provide marketing solely on behalf of Pearson or an affiliate or customer for whom Pearson is a service provider. Marketing preferences may be changed at any time.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user's personally identifiable information changes (such as your postal address or email address), we provide a way to correct or update that user's personal data provided to us. This can be done on the Account page. If a user no longer desires our service and desires to delete his or her account, please contact us at customer-service@informit.com and we will process the deletion of a user's account.


Users can always make an informed choice as to whether they should proceed with certain services offered by Cisco Press. If you choose to remove yourself from our mailing list(s) simply visit the following page and uncheck any communication you no longer want to receive: www.ciscopress.com/u.aspx.

Sale of Personal Information

Pearson does not rent or sell personal information in exchange for any payment of money.

While Pearson does not sell personal information, as defined in Nevada law, Nevada residents may email a request for no sale of their personal information to NevadaDesignatedRequest@pearson.com.

Supplemental Privacy Statement for California Residents

California residents should read our Supplemental privacy statement for California residents in conjunction with this Privacy Notice. The Supplemental privacy statement for California residents explains Pearson's commitment to comply with California law and applies to personal information of California residents collected in connection with this site and the Services.

Sharing and Disclosure

Pearson may disclose personal information, as follows:

  • As required by law.
  • With the consent of the individual (or their parent, if the individual is a minor)
  • In response to a subpoena, court order or legal process, to the extent permitted or required by law
  • To protect the security and safety of individuals, data, assets and systems, consistent with applicable law
  • In connection the sale, joint venture or other transfer of some or all of its company or assets, subject to the provisions of this Privacy Notice
  • To investigate or address actual or suspected fraud or other illegal activities
  • To exercise its legal rights, including enforcement of the Terms of Use for this site or another contract
  • To affiliated Pearson companies and other companies and organizations who perform work for Pearson and are obligated to protect the privacy of personal information consistent with this Privacy Notice
  • To a school, organization, company or government agency, where Pearson collects or processes the personal information in a school setting or on behalf of such organization, company or government agency.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that we are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of each and every web site that collects Personal Information. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this web site.

Requests and Contact

Please contact us about this Privacy Notice or if you have any requests or questions relating to the privacy of your personal information.

Changes to this Privacy Notice

We may revise this Privacy Notice through an updated posting. We will identify the effective date of the revision in the posting. Often, updates are made to provide greater clarity or to comply with changes in regulatory requirements. If the updates involve material changes to the collection, protection, use or disclosure of Personal Information, Pearson will provide notice of the change through a conspicuous notice on this site or other appropriate way. Continued use of the site after the effective date of a posted revision evidences acceptance. Please contact us if you have questions or concerns about the Privacy Notice or any objection to any revisions.

Last Update: November 17, 2020